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RUT240 Routing

Summary #

This chapter is an overview of the Routing section in RUT devices.

The information in this page is updated in accordance with the RUT2XX_R_00.01.11.3 firmware version.

Static Routes #

Static routes specify over which interface and gateway a certain host or network can be reached. In this page you can configure your own custom routes.

Network routing static routes.PNG
Field NameValueDescription
Routing tableMain | WAN | WAN2 | WAN3; Default: WANDefines which table will be used for the route in question
InterfaceLAN | WAN(Wired) | WAN2(Mobile) | WAN3(WiFi) | VPN instances; Default: WAN(Wired)The zone where the target network resides
Destination address*ip; Default: 0.0.0.0The address of the destination network
Netmask*ip; Default: 0.0.0.0A Mask that is applied to the Target to determine to what actual IP addresses the routing rule applies
Gatewayip; Default: ” “Defines where the router should send all the traffic that applies to the rule
Metricinteger; Default: 0The Metric value is used as a sorting measure. If a packet about to be routed fits two rules, the one with the higher metric is applied

*Additional notes on Destination & Netmask:

You can define a rule that applies to a single IP like this: Destination – some IP; Netmask – 255.255.255.255. Furthermore, you can define a rule that applies to a segment of IPs like this: Destination – some IP that STARTS some segment; Netmask – Netmask that defines how large the segment is. e.g.:

Field NameValueDescription
192.168.55.161255.255.255.255Only applies to 192.168.55.161
192.168.55.0255.255.255.240Applies to IPs in the 192.168.55.0 – 192.168.55.15
192.168.55.240255.255.255.240192.168.55.240 – 192.168.55.255
192.168.55.161255.255.255.0192.168.55.0 – 192.168.55.255
192.168.0.0255.255.0.0192.168.0.0 – 192.168.255.255

Static IPv6 Routes #

Settings for Static IPv6 routes are similar to IPv4. 

Field NameValueDescription
InterfaceWired WAN IPv6 | Mobile WAN IPv6 | Wi-Fi IPv6; Default: Wired WAN IPv6Defines which interface will be used
TargetDefault: ” “The address of the destination network
IPv6-Gatewayipv6; Default: ” “Defines where the router should send all the traffic that applies to the rule
Metricinteger; Default: 0The Metric value is used as a sorting measure. If a packet about to be routed fits two rules, the one with the higher metric is applied

Static ARP entries #

Static ARP entries are used to bind a MAC address to a specific IP address. For example, if you want a device to get the same IP every time it connects to the router, you can create a Static ARP entry by binding that device’s MAC address to the desired IP address. The router will then create an entry in the ARP table, which in turn will make sure that that device will get the specified IP address every time.

Network routing static routes static arp entries.PNG

Dynamic Routes #

BGP Protocol #

Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) is a standardized exterior gateway protocol designed to exchange routing and reachability information among autonomous systems (AS) on the Internet. The protocol is often classified as a path vector protocol but is sometimes also classed as a distance-vector routing protocol. The Border Gateway Protocol makes routing decisions based on paths, network policies, or rule-sets configured by a network administrator and is involved in making core routing decisions.

General Settings #

Network routing dynamic routes bgp general.PNG
Field NameValueDescription
Enableyes | no; Default: noToggles the BGP protocol ON or OFF
Enable vtyyes | no; Default: noToggles vty access from LAN ON or OFF
Import configUploads an external BGP configuration

BGP Instance #

Network routing dynamic routes bgp instance.PNG
Field NameValueDescription
Enableyes | no; Default: noToggles the BGP instance ON or OFF
Use IPv6yes | no; Default: noUse IPv6 address family in the configuration
ASinteger: ” “AS number is an identification of an autonomous system. BGP protocol uses the AS number for detecting whether the BGP connection is an internal one or external one. [Required]
BGP router IDstring; Default: ” “The router id is used by BGP to identify the routing device from which a packet originated. Default router ID value is selected as the largest IP Address of the interface.
Networkstring; Default: ” “Add an announcement network(s)

BGP Peers #

Network routing dynamic routes bgp peers.PNG
Field NameValueDescription
Enableyes | no; Default: noToggles the BGP peer ON or OFF
Remote ASinteger: ” “Neighbour’s remote AS
Remote addressip; Default: ” “Neighbour’s remote IPv4 address

Access List Filters #

Network routing dynamic routes bgp access list filters.PNG
Field NameValueDescription
Enableyes | no; Default: noToggles the Access filter ON or OFF
Peerbgp peer; Default: first peer on listApplies the rule for the specified peer
ActionPermit | Deny; Default: PermitDenies or permits matched entry
NetworkAny | ip; Default: AnyApplies filter rule for this source network
DirectionInbound | Outbound; Default: InboundIf direction is Inbound, the access list is applied to input routes. If direction is Outbound the access list is applied to advertised routes

RIP Protocol #

The Routing Information Protocol (RIP) is one of the oldest distance-vector routing protocols which employ the hop count as a routing metric. RIP prevents routing loops by implementing a limit on the number of hops allowed in a path from source to destination. The maximum number of hops allowed for RIP is 15, which limits the size of networks that RIP can support. A hop count of 16 is considered an infinite distance and the route is considered unreachable. RIP implements the split horizon, route poisoning and holddown mechanisms to prevent incorrect routing information from being propagated.

General #

Network routing dynamic routes rip general.PNG
Field NameValueDescription
Enableyes | no; Default: noToggles RIP Protocol ON or OFF
Enable vtyyes | no; Default: noToggles vty access from LAN ON or OFF
Import configUses imported RIP configurations
Version2 | 1; Default: 2Specifies the version of RIP
Neighborip; Default: ” “Neighbour IP addres

RIP Interfaces #

Network routing dynamic routes rip rip interfaces.PNG
Field NameValueDescription
Enableyes | no; Default: noToggles RIP Interface ON or OFF
Interfacenetwork interface; Default: noNetwork interface to be used with the RIP interface
Passive interfaceyes | no; Default: noSets the specified interface to passive mode. On passive mode interface, all receiving packets are processed as normal and ripd does not send either multicast or unicast RIP packets

Access list filters #

Network routing dynamic routes rip access list filters.PNG
Field NameValueDescription
Enableyes | no; Default: noToggles the Access filter ON or OFF
Peerbgp peer; Default: first peer on listApplies the rule for the specified peer
ActionPermit | Deny; Default: PermitDenies or permits matched entry
NetworkAny | ip; Default: AnyApplies filter rule for this source network
DirectionInbound | Outbound; Default: InboundIf direction is Inbound, the access list is applied to input routes. If direction is Outbound the access list is applied to advertised routes

OSPF Protocol #

Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) is a routing protocol for Internet Protocol (IP) networks. It uses a link state routing (LSR) algorithm and falls into the group of interior gateway protocols (IGPs), operating within a single autonomous system (AS). It is defined as OSPF Version 2 in RFC 2328 for IPv4.

General Settings #

Network routing dynamic routes ospf general.PNG
Field NameValueDescription
Enableyes | no; Default: noToggles OSPF Protocol ON or OFF
Enable vtyyes | no; Default: noToggles vty access from LAN ON or OFF
Import configUses imported OSPF configurations
Router IDip; Default: ” “Sets the router-ID of the OSPF process. The router-ID may be an IP address of the router, but need not be – it can be any arbitrary 32bit number

OSPF Interface #

Network routing dynamic routes ospf ospf interface.PNG
Field NameValueDescription
Enableyes | no; Default: noToggles OSPF interface ON or OFF
Costinteger [1..65535]; Default: 10The cost value is set to router-LSA’s metric field and used for SPF calculation
Hello intervalinteger [1..65535]; Default: 10Hello packets will be sent at the frequency specified in this field (in seconds)
Router dead intervalinteger [1..65535]; Default: 40This value must be the same for all routers attached to a common network
Retransmitinteger [1..65535]; Default: 5This value is used when re-transmitting Database Description and Link State Request packets
Priorityinteger [0..255]; Default: 1The router with the highest priority will be more eligible to become the Designated Router. Setting the value to 0, makes the router ineligible to become the Designated Router
TypeBroadcast | Nonbroadcast | Point-to-point | Point-to-multipoint; Default: ” “Set explicit network type for the specified interface
AuthenticationNone | Password | MD5 HMAC; Default: ” “Specifies the authentication mode that should be used for the interface

OSPF Networks #

Network routing dynamic routes ospf networks.PNG
Field NameValueDescription
Enableyes | no; Default: noToggles OSPF network ON or OFF
Network[a.b.c.d/m]; Default: ” “This command specifies the OSPF enabled interface. If the interface has an address from the range a.b.c.d/m then enables OSPF on this interface so the router can provide network information to the other OSPF routers via this interface
Areaospf area; Default: ” “Specifies OSPF area

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