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RUT240 VPN

Summary #

Virtual Private Network (VPN) is a method of connecting multiple private networks across the Internet. VPNs can serve to achieve many different goals, but some of its main purposes are:

  • access between remote private networks;
  • data encryption;
  • anonymity when browsing the Internet.

This page is an overview of the different types of VPNs supported by RUT240 routers.

The information in this page is updated in accordance with the RUT2XX_R_00.01.12 firmware version.

OpenVPN #

OpenVPN is an open-source software application that implements virtual private network (VPN) techniques for creating secure point-to-point or site-to-site connections in routed or bridged configurations and remote access facilities. It is often regarded as being the most universal VPN protocol because of its flexibility, support of SSL/TLS security, multiple encryption methods, many networking features and compatibility with most OS platforms.

RUT240 routers run OpenVPN version 2.4.5.

OpenVPN client #

An OpenVPN client is an entity that initiates a connection to an OpenVPN server. To create a new client instance, go to the Services → VPN → OpenVPN section, select Role: Client, enter a custom name and click the ‘Add New’ button. An OpenVPN client instance with the given name will appear in the “OpenVPN Configuration” list. A maximum of six OpenVPN client instances are allowed to be added.

To begin configuration, click the ‘Edit’ button next to the client instance. Refer to the figure and table below for information on the OpenVPN client’s configuration fields:

Networking rutxxx vpn openvpn client configuration v3.png
FieldValueDescription
Enable OpenVPN config from fileyes | no; default: noEnables custom OpenVPN configuration from file.
Enableyes | no; default: noTurns the OpenVPN instance on or off.
TUN/TAPTUN (tunnel) | TAP (bridged); default: TUN (tunnel)Virtual network device type.TUN – a virtual point-to-point IP link which operates at the network layer (OSI layer 3), used when routing is required.TAP – a virtual Ethernet adapter (switch), operates at the data link layer (OSI layer 2), used when bridging is required.
ProtocolUDP | TCP; default: UDPTransfer protocol used for the OpenVPN connection.Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) – most commonly used protocol in the Internet Protocol (IP) suite. It ensures the recipient will receive packets in the order they were sent by numbering, analysing response messages, checking for errors and resending them if an issue occurs. It should be used when reliability is crucial (for example, in file transfer).User Datagram Protocol (UDP) – packets are sent to the recipient without error-checking or back-and-forth quality control, meaning that when packets are lost, they are gone forever. This makes it less reliable but faster than TCP; therefore, it should be used when transfer speed is crucial (for example, in video streaming, live calls).
Portinteger [0..65535]; default: 1194TCP/UDP port number used for the connection. Make sure it matches the port number specified on the server side.
NOTE: traffic on the selected port will be automatically allowed in the router’s firewall rules.
LZOyes | no; default: noTurns LZO data compression on or off.
AuthenticationTLS | Static Key | Password | TLS/Password; default: TLSAuthentication mode, used to secure data sessions.Static key is a secret key used for server–client authentication.TLS authentication mode uses X.509 type certificates:Certificate Authority (CA)Client certificateClient keyAll mentioned certificates can be generated using OpenVPN or Open SSL utilities on any type of host machine. One of the most popular utilities used for this purpose is called Easy-RSA.Password is a simple username/password based authentication where the owner of the OpenVPN server provides the login data.TLS/Password uses both TLS and username/password authentication.
EncryptionDES-CBC 64 | RC2-CBC 128 | DES-EDE-CBC 128 | DES-EDE3-CBC 192 | DESX-CBC 192 | RC2-40-CBC 40 | CAST5-CBC 128 | RC2-64-CBC 64 | AES-128-CFB 128 | AES-128-CFB1 128 | AES-128-CFB8 128 | AES-128-OFB 128 | AES-128-CBC 128 | AES-128-GCM 128 | AES-192-CFB 192 | AES-192-CFB1 192 | AES-192-CFB8 192 | AES-192-OFB 192 | AES-192-CBC 192 | AES-192-GCM 192 | AES-256-CFB 256 | AES-256-CFB1 256 | AES-256-CFB8 256 | AES-256-OFB 256 | AES-256-CBC 256 | AES-256-GCM 256 | none ; default: BF-CBC 128Algorithm used for packet encryption.
TLS: TLS cipherAll | DHE+RSA | Custom; default: AllPacket encryption algorithm cipher.
TLS: Allowed TLS ciphersAll | DHE+RSA | Custom; default: AllA list of TLS ciphers accepted for this connection.
Remote host/IP addressip; default: noneIP address or hostname of an OpenVPN server.
Resolve retryinteger | infinite; default: infiniteIn case server hostname resolve fails, this field indicates the amount of time (in seconds) to retry the resolve. Specify infinite to retry indefinitely.
Keep alivetwo integers separated by a space; default: noneDefines two time intervals: the first is used to periodically send ICMP requests to the OpenVPN server, the second one defines a time window, which is used to restart the OpenVPN service if no ICMP response is received during the specified time slice. When this value is specfiied on the OpenVPN server, it overrides the ‘keep alive’ values set on client instances.
Example10 120
Static key: Local tunnel endpoint IPip; default: noneIP address of the local OpenVPN network interface.
Static key: Remote tunnel endpoint IPip; default: noneIP address of the remote OpenVPN network (server) interface.
Remote network IP addressip; default: noneLAN IP address of the remote network (server).
Remote network IP netmasknetmask; default: noneLAN IP subnet mask of the remote network (server).
Password: User namestring; default: noneUsername used for authentication to the OpenVPN server.
Password: Passwordstring; default: nonePassword used for authentication to the OpenVPN server.
Extra optionsstring; default: noneExtra OpenVPN options to be used by the OpenVPN instance.
Use PKCS #12 formatyes | no; default: noUse PKCS #12 archive file format to bundle all the members of a chain of trust.
PKCS #12 passphrasestring; default: nonePassphrase to decrypt PKCS #12 certificates.
PKCS #12 certificate chainstring; default: noneUploads PKCS #12 certificate chain file.
TLS/Password: HMAC authentication algorithmnone | SHA1 | SHA256 | SHA384 | SHA512; default: SHA1HMAC authentication algorithm type.
TLS/Password: Additional HMAC authenticationnone | Authentication only (tls-auth) | Authentication and encryption (tls-crypt); default: noneAn additional layer of HMAC authentication on top of the TLS control channel to protect against DoS attacks.
TLS/Password: HMAC authentication key.key file; default: noneUploads an HMAC authentication key file.
TLS/Password: HMAC key direction0 | 1 | none; default: 1The value of the key direction parameter should be complementary on either side (client and server) of the connection. If one side uses 0, the other side should use 1, or both sides should omit the parameter altogether.
TLS/Password: Certificate authority.ca file; default: noneCertificate authority (CA) is an entity that issues digital certificates. A digital certificate certifies the ownership of a public key by the named subject of the certificate.
TLS: Client certificate.crt file; default: noneClient certificate is a type of digital certificate that is used by client systems to make authenticated requests to a remote server. Client certificates play a key role in many mutual authentication designs, providing strong assurances of a requester’s identity.
TLS: Client key.key file; default: noneAuthenticates the client to the server and establishes precisely who they are.
TLS: Private key decryption password (optional)string; default: noneA password used to decrypt the server’s private key. Use only if server’s .key file is encrypted with a password.
Static key: Static pre-shared key.key file; default: noneUploads a secret key file used for server–client authentication.

Additional notes:

  • Some configuration fields become available only when certain other parameters are selected. The names of the parameters are followed by a prefix that specifies the authentication type under which they become visible. Different color codes are used for different prefixes:
    • Red for Authentication: TLS
    • Purple for Authentication: Static key
    • Blue for Authentication: Password
  • After changing any of the parameters, don’t forget to click the Save button located at the bottom-right side of the page.

OpenVPN server #

An OpenVPN server is an entity that waits for incoming connections from OpenVPN clients. To create a new server instance, go to the Services → VPN → OpenVPN section, select Role: Server, enter a custom name and click the ‘Add New’ button. An OpenVPN server instance with the given name will appear in the “OpenVPN Configuration” list. Only one OpenVPN server instance is allowed to be added.

A server needs to have a public IP address in order to be available from the public network (the Internet).

To begin configuration, click the ‘Edit’ button next to the server instance. Refer to the figure and table below for information on the OpenVPN server’s configuration fields:

Networking rutxxx vpn openvpn server configuration v3.png
FieldValueDescription
Enable OpenVPN config from fileyes | no; default: noEnables custom OpenVPN configuration from file.
Enableyes | no; default: noTurns the OpenVPN instance on or off.
TUN/TAPTUN (tunnel) | TAP (bridged); default: TUN (tunnel)Virtual network device type.TUN – a virtual point-to-point IP link which operates at the network layer (OSI layer 3), used when routing is required.TAP – a virtual Ethernet adapter (switch), operates at the data link layer (OSI layer 2), used when bridging is required.
ProtocolUDP | TCP; default: UDPTransfer protocol used for the connection.Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) – most commonly used protocol in the Internet Protocol (IP) suite. It ensures the recipient will receive packets in the order they were sent by numbering, analysing response messages, checking for errors and resending them if an issue occurs. It should be used when reliability is crucial (for example, file transfer).User Datagram Protocol (UDP) – packets are sent to the recipient without error-checking or back-and-forth quality control, meaning that when packets are lost, they are gone forever. This makes it less reliable but faster than TCP; therefore, it should be used when transfer speed is crucial (for example, video streaming, live calls).
Portinteger [0..65535]; default: 1194TCP/UDP port number used for the connection. Make sure it matches the port number specified on the server side.
NOTE: traffic on the selected port will be automatically allowed in the router’s firewall rules.
LZOyes | no; default: noTurns LZO data compression on or off.
AuthenticationTLS | Static Key | TLS/Password; default: TLSAuthentication mode, used to secure data sessions.Static key is a secret key used for server–client authentication.TLS authentication mode uses X.509 type certificates:Certificate Authority (CA)Client certificateClient keyAll mentioned certificates can be generated using OpenVPN or Open SSL utilities on any type of host machine. One of the most popular utilities used for this purpose is called Easy-RSA.TLS/Password uses both TLS and username/password authentication.
EncryptionDES-CBC 64 | RC2-CBC 128 | DES-EDE-CBC 128 | DES-EDE3-CBC 192 | DESX-CBC 192 | RC2-40-CBC 40 | CAST5-CBC 128 | RC2-64-CBC 64 | AES-128-CFB 128 | AES-128-CFB1 128 | AES-128-CFB8 128 | AES-128-OFB 128 | AES-128-CBC 128 | AES-128-GCM 128 | AES-192-CFB 192 | AES-192-CFB1 192 | AES-192-CFB8 192 | AES-192-OFB 192 | AES-192-CBC 192 | AES-192-GCM 192 | AES-256-CFB 256 | AES-256-CFB1 256 | AES-256-CFB8 256 | AES-256-OFB 256 | AES-256-CBC 256 | AES-256-GCM 256 | none ; default: BF-CBC 128Algorithm used for packet encryption.
Static key: Local tunnel endpoint IPip; default: noneIP address of the local OpenVPN network interface.
Static key: Remote tunnel endpoint IPip; default: noneIP address of the remote OpenVPN network (client) interface.
Static key: Remote network IP addressip; default: noneLAN IP address of the remote network (client).
Static key: Remote network IP netmasknetmask; default: noneLAN IP subnet mask of the remote network (client).
TLS/TLS/Password: TLS cipherAll | DHE+RSA | Custom; default: AllPacket encryption algorithm cipher.
TLS/Password: Allowed TLS ciphersAll | DHE+RSA | Custom; default: AllA list of TLS ciphers accepted for this connection.
TLS/TLS/Password: Client to clientyes | no; default: noAllows OpenVPN clients to communicate with each other on the VPN network.
TLS/TLS/Password: Keep alivetwo integers separated by a space; default: noneDefines two time intervals: the first is used to periodically send ICMP requests to the OpenVPN server, the second one defines a time window, which is used to restart the OpenVPN service if no ICMP response is received during the specified time slice. When this value is specifiied on the OpenVPN server, it overrides the ‘keep alive’ values set on client instances.
Example10 120
TLS/TLS/Password: Virtual network IP addressip; default: noneIP address of the OpenVPN network.
TLS/TLS/Password: Virtual network netmasknetmask; default: noneSubnet mask of the OpenVPN network.
TLS/TLS/Password: Push optionOpenVPN options; default: nonePush options are a way to “push” routes and other additional OpenVPN options to connecting clients.
TLS/TLS/Password: Allow duplicate certificatesyes | no; default: noWhen enabled allows multiple clients to connect using the same certificates.
Use PKCS #12 formatyes | no; default: noUse PKCS #12 archive file format to bundle all the members of a chain of trust.
PKCS #12 passphrasestring; default: nonePassphrase to decrypt PKCS #12 certificates.
PKCS #12 certificate chainstring; default: noneUploads PKCS #12 certificate chain file.
TLS/Password: User namestring; default: noneUsername used for authentication to this OpenVPN server.
TLS/Password: Passwordstring; default: nonePassword used for authentication to this OpenVPN server.
Static key: Static pre-shared key.key file; default: noneUploads a secret key file used for server–client authentication.
TLS/TLS/Password: Certificate authority.ca file; default: noneCertificate authority is an entity that issues digital certificates. A digital certificate certifies the ownership of a public key by the named subject of the certificate.
TLS/TLS/Password: Server certificate.crt file; default: noneA type of digital certificate that is used to identify the OpenVPN server.
TLS/TLS/Password: Server key.key file; default: noneAuthenticates clients to the server.
TLS/TLS/Password: Diffie Hellman parameters.pem file; default: noneDH parameters define how OpenSSL performs the Diffie-Hellman (DH) key-exchange.
TLS/TLS/Password: CRL file (optional).pem file | .crl file; default: noneA certificate revocation list (CRL) file is a list of certificates that have been revoked by the certificate authority (CA). It indicates which certificates are no longer acccepted by the CA and therefore cannot be authenticated to the server.
TLS/TLS/Password: Enable manual ccd uploadyes | no; default: noEnable manual upload of client-config-dir files.

Additional notes:

  • Some configuration fields become available only when certain other parameters are selected. The names of the parameters are followed by a prefix that specifies the authentication type under which they become visible. Different color codes are used for different prefixes:
    • Red for Authentication: TLS
    • Purple for Authentication: Static key
    • Blue for Authentication: TLS/Password
  • After changing any of the parameters, don’t forget to click the Save button located at the bottom-right side of the page.

TLS Clients #

TLS Clients is a way to differentiate clients by their Common Names (CN), which are found in the client certificate file. It can be used to assign specific VPN addresses to corresponding clients and bind them to their LAN addresses, making the server aware of which client has which LAN IP address.

The TLS Clients section can be found in the OpenVPN Server configuration window, provided that the OpenVPN server uses TLS or TLS/Password authentication methods. To create a new TLS client, type in the new client‘s name in the text field found bellow the TLS Clients tab and click the ‘Add’ button. Refer to the figure and table below for information on the TLS Clients’ configuration fields:

Networking rutxxx vpn openvpn tls clients configuration v3.png
FieldValueDescription
Endpoint namestring; default: noneA custom name for the client.
Common name (CN)string; default: noneClient’s Common Name (CN) found in the client certificate file.
Virtual local endpointip; default: noneClient’s local address in the virtual network.
Virtual remote endpointip; default: noneClient’s remote address in the virtual network.
Private networkip; default: noneClient’s private network (LAN) IP address.
Private netmaskip; default: noneClient’s private network (LAN) IP netmask.

IPsec #

To create a new IPsec instance, go to the Services → VPN → IPsec section, enter a custom name and click “Add”. An IPsec instance with the given name will appear in the “IPsec Configuration” list.

To begin configuration, click the ‘Edit’ button located next to the instance.

IPsec configuration #

The IPsec configuration section is used to configure the main parameters of an IPsec connection. Refer to the figure and table below for information on the configuration fields located in the general settings section.

Networking rut2xx manual vpn ipsec configuration v1.png
FieldValueDescription
Enableyes | no; default: noTurns the IPsec instance on or off
Enable IPv6yes | no; default: noTurns the IPv6 address of the left interface on or off
Left IPv6IPv6 address; default: noneIPv6 address used as the source. If left empty, uses one of the available global addresses.
Authentication typePre-shared key | X.509; default: Pre-shared keyAuthentication type accordingly to your IPsec configuration. IPsec
IKE versionIKEv1 | IKEv2; default: IKEv1Internet Key Exchange (IKE) version used for key exchangeIKEv1 – more commonly used but contains known issues, for example, dealing with NAT.IKEv2 – updated version with increased and improved capabilities, such as integrated NAT support, supported multihosting, deprecated exchange modes (does not use main or aggressive mode; only 4 messages required to establish a connection)
ModeMain | Aggressive; default: MainInternet Security and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) phase 1 exchange mode.Main – performs three two-way exchanges between the initiator and the receiver (a total of 9 messages).Aggressive – performs fewer exchanges than main mode (a total of 6 messages) by storing most data into the first exchange. In aggressive mode, the information is exchanged before there is a secure channel, making it less secure but faster than main mode
TypeTunnel | Transport; default: TunnelType of connection.Tunnel – protects internal routing information by encapsulating the entire IP packet (IP header and payload); commonly used in site-to-site VPN connections; supports NAT traversal.Transport – only encapsulates IP payload data; used in client-to-site VPN connections; does not support NAT traversal; usually implemented with other tunneling protocols (for example, L2TP).
On startupIgnore | Add | Route | Start; default: StartDefines how the instance should act on router startup.Add – loads a connection without starting it.Route – starts the tunnel only if there is traffic.Start – starts the tunnel on router startup.
My identifierip | string; default: noneDefines how the user (IPsec instance) will be identified during authentication.
Tunnel: Local IP address/Subnet maskip/netmask | default: noneLocal IP address and subnet mask used to determine which part of the network can be accessed in the VPN network. Netmask range [0..32]. If left empty, IP address will be selected automatically.
Left firewalloff | on; default: onAdds neccessary firewall rules to allow traffic of this IPsec instance on this router.
Force encapsulationyes | no; default: noForces UDP encapsulation for ESP packets even if a “no NAT” situation is detected.
Dead Peer Detectionyes | no; default: noA function used during Internet Key Exchange (IKE) to detect a “dead” peer. It used to reduce traffic by minimizing the number of messages when the opposite peer in unavailable and as failover mechanism.
Dead Peer Detection: Delay (sec)integer; default: noneThe frequency of checking whether a peer is still availaible or not.
Dead Peer Detection: Timeout (sec)integer; default: noneTime limit after which the IPsec instance will stop checking the availability of a peer and determine it to be “dead” if no response is received.
Remote VPN endpointhost | ip; default: noneIP address or hostname of the remote IPsec instance
Remote identifierstring | ip; default: noneFQDN or IP address of remote peer. Leave empty for any
Tunnel: Remote IP address/Subnet maskip/netmask; default: noneRemote network IP address and subnet mask used to determine which part of the network can be accessed in the VPN network. Netmask range [0..32]. This value must differ from the device’s LAN IP
Right firewallyes | no; default: yesAdds neccessary firewall rules to allow traffic of from the opposite IPsec instance on this router
Allow WebUI accessyes | no; default: noAllows WebUI access for hosts in the VPN network
Custom optionsipsec options; default: noneProvides the possibility to further customize the connection by adding extra IPsec options.

Additional notes:

  • Some configuration fields become available only when certain other parameters are selected. Different color codes are used for different parameters:
    • Red for Type: Tunnel
    • Purple for Type: Transport
    • Blue for Dead Peer Detection: Enabled
  • After changing any of the parameters, don’t forget to click the Save button located at the bottom-right side of the page.

Phase settings #

IKE (Internet Key Exchange) is a protocol used to set up security associations (SAs) for the IPsec connection. This process is required before the IPsec tunnel can be established. It is done in two phases:

PhaseMode
Phase 1Establishes a secure channel between peersAuthenticates peersNegotiates SA policyShares secret keysEstablishes secure tunnel for phase 2Main mode (figure 1)6 packets exchangedIdentity protected during exchangeAggressive mode (figure 2)3 packets exchangedIdentity information exchanged before a secure channel is established
Phase 2Sets up matching IPsec SAsPeriodically renegotiates IPsec SAsQuick mode3 packets exchangedIPsec SA parameters (ESP/AH, SHA/MD5) establishedSA lifetime set
Figure 1Figure 2
Networking rutxxx vpn ipsec ipsec configuration phase v2.png
FieldValueDescription
Encryption algorithmDES | 3DES | AES128 | AES192 | AES256; default: 3DESAlgorithm used for data encryption.
Authentication/Hash algorithmMD5 | SHA1 | SHA256 | SHA384 | SHA512; default: SHA1Algorithm used for exchanging authentication and hash information.
DH group/PFS groupMODP768 | MODP1024 | MODP1536 | MODP2048 | MODP3072 | MODP4096; default: MODP1536Diffie-Hellman (DH) group used in the key exchange process. Higher group numbers provide more security, but take longer and use more resources to compute the key.
Lifetimeinteger; default: 8 hoursDefines a time period after which the phase will re-initiate its exchange of information.

Pre-shared keys #

pre-shared key is a secret password used for authentication between IPsec peers before a secure tunnel is established. To create a new key, click the ‘Add’ button.

The figure below is an example of the Pre-shared keys section and the table below provides information on configuration fields contained in that section:

Networking rutxxx vpn ipsec pre-shared keys v2.png
FieldValueDescription
Pre-shared keystring; default: noneA shared password used for authentication between IPsec peers before a secure channel is established.
Secret’s ID selectorstring; default: noneEach secret can be preceded by a list of optional ID selectors. A selector is an IP address, a Fully Qualified Domain Name, user@FQDN or %any.
NOTE: IKEv1 only supports IP address ID selector.

GRE Tunnel #

Generic Routing Encapsulation (GRE) is a tunneling protocol used to establish point-to-point connections between remote private networks. GRE tunnels encapsulate data packets in order to route other protocols over IP networks.

GRE: main & tunnel settings #

To create a new GRE Tunnel instance, go to the Services → VPN → GRE Tunnel section, enter a custom name and click the ‘Add’ button. A GRE instance with the given name will appear in the “GRE Configuration” list.

To begin configuration, click the ‘Edit’ button located next to the instance. Refer to the figure and table below for information on the fields located in the GRE Tunnel instance configuration section.

Networking rut2 manual services VPN GRE tunnel.png
FieldValueDescription
Enabledyes | no; default: noTurns the GRE Tunnel instance on or off.
Tunnel sourcenetwork interface; default: noneNetwork interface used to establish the GRE Tunnel.
Remote endpoint IP addressip; default: noneExternal IP address of another GRE instance used to establish the initial connection between peers.
Use Ipv6: Remote endpoint IPv6 addressip; default: noneExternal IPv6 address of GRE instance used to establish the initial connection between peers.
MTUinteger; default: 1476Sets the maximum transmission unit (MTU) size. It is the largest size of a protocol data unit (PDU) that can be transmitted in a single network layer transaction.
TTLinteger [0..255]; default: 255Sets a custom TTL (Time to Live) value for encapsulated packets. TTL is a field in the IP packet header which is initially set by the sender and decreased by 1 on each hop. When it reaches 0 it is dropped and the last host to receive the packet sends an ICMP “Time Exceeded” message back to the source.
Outbound keyinteger [0..65535]; default: noneA key used to identify outgoing packets. A This value should match the “Inbound key” value set on the opposite GRE instance or both key values should be omitted on both sides.
Inbound keyinteger [0..65535]; default: noneA key used to identify incoming packets. This value should match the “Outbound key” value set on the opposite GRE instance or both key values should be omitted on both sides.
Don’t fragmentyes | no; default: yesWhen unchecked, sets the nopmtudisc option for tunnel. Can not be used together with the TTL option.
Keep aliveyes | no; default: noTurns “keep alive” on or off. The “keep alive” feature sends packets to the remote instance in order to determine the health of the connection. If no response is received, the device will attempt to re-establish the tunnel.
Keep alive intervalinteger [0..255]; default: noneFrequency (in seconds) at which “keep alive” packets are sent to the remote instance.
Local GRE interface IP addressip; default: noneIP address of the local GRE Tunnel network interface.
Local GRE interface netmasknetmask; default: noneSubnet mask of the local GRE Tunnel network interface.

Additional notes:

  • Some configuration fields become available only when certain other parameters are selected. The names of the parameters are followed by a prefix that specifies the authentication type under which they become visible. Different color codes are used for different prefixes:
    • Red for Use IPv6: Enabled
  • After changing any of the parameters, don’t forget to click the Save button located at the bottom-right side of the page.

GRE: routing settings #

Routing settings are used to configure routes to networks that are behind the device that hosts the opposite GRE instance. To add a new route, simply click the ‘Add’ button. For information on configuring the route refer to the figure and table below.

Networking rutxxx vpn gre gre configuration routing settings v1.png
FieldValueDescription
Remote subnet IP addressip; default: noneIP address of the network behind the device that hosts the remote GRE instance.
Remote subnet netmasknetmask; default: noneSubnet mask of the network behind the device that hosts the remote GRE instance.

PPTP #

Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) is a type of VPN protocol that uses a TCP control channel and a Generic Routing Encapsulation tunnel to encapsulate PPP packets.

PPTP client #

PPTP client is an entity that initiates a connection to a PPTP server. To create a new client instance, go to the Services → VPN → PPTP section, select Role: Client, enter a custom name and click the ‘Add New’ button. A PPTP client instance with the given name will appear in the “PPTP Configuration” list.

To begin configuration, click the ‘Edit’ button located next to the client instance. Refer to the figure and table below for information on the PPTP client’s configuration fields:

Networking rutxxx vpn pptp client configuration v1.png
FieldValueDescription
Enableyes | no; default: noTurns the PPTP instance on or off.
Use as default gatewayyes | no; default: noWhen turned on, this connection will become the router’s default route. This means that all traffic directed to the Internet will go through the PPTP server and the server’s IP address will be seen as this device’s source IP to other hosts on the Internet.
NOTE: this can only be used when WAN Failover is turned off.
Client to clientyes | no; default: noAdds a route that makes other PPTP clients accessible within the PPTP network.
Serverip | host; default: noneIP address or hostname of a PPTP server.
Usernamestring; default: noneUsername used for authentication to the PPTP server.
Passwordstring; default: nonePassword used for authentication to the PPTP server.

PPTP server #

PPTP server is an entity that waits for incoming connections from PPTP clients. To create a new server instance, go to the Services → VPN → PPTP section, select Role: Server, enter a custom name and click the ‘Add New’ button. A PPTP server instance with the given name will appear in the “PPTP Configuration” list. Only one PPTP server instance is allowed to be added.

A server needs to have a public IP address in order to be available from the public network (the Internet).

To begin configuration, click the ‘Edit’ button located next to the server instance. Refer to the figure and table below for information on the PPTP server’s configuration fields:

Networking rutxxx vpn pptp server configuration v1.png
FieldValueDescription
Enableyes | no; default: noTurns the PPTP instance on or off.
Local IPip; default: 192.168.0.1IP address of this PPTP network interface.
Remote IP range startip; default: 192.168.0.20PPTP IP address leases will begin from the address specified in this field.
Remote IP range endip; default: 192.168.0.30PPTP IP address leases will end with the address specified in this field.
User namestring; default: youruserUsername used for authentication to this PPTP server.
Passwordstring; default: yourpassPassword used for authentication to this PPTP server.
PPTP Client’s IPip; default: noneAssigns an IP address to the client that uses the adjacent authentication info. This field is optional and if left empty the client will simply receive an IP address from the IP pool defined above.

L2TP #

In computer networking, Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol (L2TP) is a tunneling protocol used to support virtual private networks (VPNs). It is more secure than PPTP but, because it encapsulates the transferred data twice, but it is slower and uses more CPU power.

L2TP client #

An L2TP client is an entity that initiates a connection to an L2TP server. To create a new client instance, go to the Services → VPN → L2TP section, select Role: Client, enter a custom name and click the ‘Add New’ button. An L2TP client instance with the given name will appear in the “L2TP Configuration” list.

To begin configuration, click the ‘Edit button located next to the client instance. Refer to the figure and table below for information on the L2TP client’s configuration fields:

Networking rutxxx vpn l2tp client configuration v1.png
FieldValueDescription
Enableyes | no; default: noTurns the L2TP instance on or off.
Serverip | host; default: noneIP address or hostname of an L2TP server.
Usernamestring; default: noneUsername used for authentication to the L2TP server.
Passwordstring; default: nonePassword used for authentication to the L2TP server.
Keep aliveinteger; default: noneFrequency (in seconds) at which LCP echo requests are sent to the remote instance in order to determine the health of the connection.
Default routeyes | no; default: noWhen turned on, this connection will become the router’s default route. This means that all traffic directed to the Internet will go through the L2TP server and the server’s IP address will be seen as this device’s source IP to other hosts on the Internet.
NOTE: this can only be used when WAN Failover is turned off.

L2TP server #

An L2TP server is an entity that waits for incoming connections from L2TP clients. To create a new server instance, go to the Services → VPN → L2TP section, select Role: Server, enter a custom name and click the ‘Add New’ button. An L2TP server instance with the given name will appear in the “L2TP Configuration” list. Only one L2TP server instance is allowed to be added.

A server needs to have a public IP address in order to be available from the public network (the Internet).

To begin configuration, click the ‘Edit’ button located next to the server instance. Refer to the figure and table below for information on the L2TP server’s configuration fields:

Networking rutxxx vpn l2tp server configuration v1.png
FieldValueDescription
Enableyes | no; default: noTurns the L2TP instance on or off.
Local IPip; default: 192.168.0.1IP address of this L2TP network interface.
Remote IP range beginip; default: 192.168.0.20L2TP IP address leases will begin from the address specified in this field.
Remote IP range endip; default: 192.168.0.30L2TP IP address leases will end with the address specified in this field.
User namestring; default: userUsername used for authentication to this L2TP server.
Passwordstring; default: passPassword used for authentication to this L2TP server.
L2TP Client’s IPip; default: noneAssigns an IP address to the client that uses the adjacent authentication info. This field is optional and if left empty the client will simply receive an IP address from the IP pool defined above.

SSTP #

Secure Socket Tunneling Protocol (SSTP) is a VPN protocol designed to transport PPP traffic via a secure SSL/TLS channel.

SSTP configuration #

To create a new SSTP instance, go to the Services → VPN → SSTP section, enter a custom name and click the ‘Add’ button. An SSTP instance with the given name will appear in the “SSTP Configuration” list.

To begin configuration, click the ‘Edit’ button located next to the instance. Refer to the figure and table below for information on the SSTP instance’s configuration fields:

Networking rutxxx vpn sstp configuration v1.png
FieldValueDescription
Enabledyes | no; default: noTurns the SSTP instance on or off.
Use as default gatewayyes | no; default: noWhen turned on, this connection will become the router’s default route. This means that all traffic directed to the Internet will go through the L2TP server and the server’s IP address will be seen as this device’s source IP to other hosts on the Internet.
NOTE: this can only be used when WAN Failover is turned off.
Server IP addressip | host; default: noneIP address or hostname of an SSTP server.
Usernamestring; default: noneUsername used for authentication to the SSTP server.
Passwordstring; default: nonePassword used for authentication to the SSTP server.
CA cert.crt file; default: noneUploads a Certificate authority (CA) file.

Stunnel #

Stunnel is an open-source a proxy service that adds TLS encryption to clients and servers already existing on a VPN network. TLS encryption provided by Stunnel can be used as an additional layer of encryption for data sent by VPN. This procedure increases the security of the established connection and provides higher chances of passing a Deep packet inspection (DPI) check.

Stunnel Globals #

The Stunnel Globals section is used to manage the Stunnel service as a whole. Refer to the figure and table below for information on the fields contained in the Stunnel Globals section.

Networking rut2xx manual vpn stunnel globals v1.png
FieldValueDescription
Use alternative configyes | no; default: noTurns the possibility to upload an external Stunnel configuration file on or off.if you turn this on, other Stunnel configurations present in the router will become inactive.
Upload alternative configfile; default: noneUploads an Stunnel configuration file.

Stunnel client/server #

To create a new Stunnel instance, go to the Services > VPN > Stunnel section, enter a custom name and click the ‘Add’ button. An Stunnel instance with the given name will appear in the “Stunnel Configuration” list.

To begin configuration, click the ‘Edit’ button located next to the instance. Refer to the figure and table below for information on the Stunnel instance’s configuration fields:

Networking rutxxx vpn stunnel stunnel client server configuration v1.png
FieldValueDescription
Enableyes | no; default: noTurns the Stunnel instance on or off.
Operating ModeServer | Client; default: ServerSelects the Stunnel instance’s role.Server – listens for connecting Stunnel clients.Client – listens for connecting OpenVPN clients and connects to an Stunnel server.
Listen IPip; default: noneMakes the instance “listen” for incoming connections on the specified IP address. When left empty, the value of this field defaults to localhost (127.0.0.1).
Listen Portinteger [0..65535]; default: noneMakes the instance “listen” for incoming connections on the specified TCP port. Make sure you chose a port that is not being used by another service. You will also have to allow traffic on the specified port. You can do this via the Network > Firewall > Traffic Rulles > Open Ports On Router section.
Connect IP’sip:port; default: noneIP:Port to listen for VPN connections. When left empty the value of this field is interpreted as localhost. Must contain at least one item. If multiple options are specified, remote address is chosen using a round-robin algorithm.
TLS CipherNone | Secure | Custom; default: NonePacket encryption algorithm cipher.
Allowed TLS Ciphersstring; default: noneA list of TLS ciphers accepted for this connection.
Application ProtocolConnect | SMTP | Not specified; default: Not specifiedThis option enables initial, protocol-specific negotiation of the TLS encryption. The protocol option should not be used with TLS encryption on a separate port.
Protocol AuthenticationConnect: Basic | NTLM; default: Basic
SMTP: Plain | Login; default: Plain
Authentication type for the protocol negotiations.
Protocol Domainstring; default: noneDomain for the protocol negotiations.
Protocol Hosthost:port; default: noneSpecifies the final TLS server to be connected to by the proxy, and not the proxy server directly connected by Stunnel. The proxy server should be specified along with the connect option.
Protocol Usernamestring; Default: noneUsername for authentication to the protocol negotiations.
Protocol Passwordstring; default: nonePassword for authentication to the protocol negotiations.
Certificate File.crt file; default: noneTLS client or server certificate file.
Private Key.key file; default: noneTLS client or server key file.

ZeroTier #

ZeroTier One is an open source software product which establishes Peer to Peer VPN (P2PVPN) connection between laptops, desktops, phones, embedded devices, cloud resources, and apps.

To make this section visible on the router, you must first install the zerotier package from the the System → Packages > Available section.

ZeroTier General #

The General section is used to enable the ZeroTier service.

Networking rutxxx vpn zerotier zerotier general v1.png
FieldValueDescription
Enabledyes | no; default: noTurns the ZeroTier service on or off.
Addressstring; default: noneYour ZeroTier address. This field is filled automatically after a successful connection.
Networksstring; default: noneZeroTier network address. This value should be taken from your ZeroTier account.

ZeroTier VPN #

The VPN section is used to turn ZeroTier VPN on or off and select its role.

Networking rutxxx vpn zerotier zerotier vpn v1.png
FieldValueDescription
Enable VPNyes | no; default: noTurns ZeroTier VPN on or off.
ModeServer | Client; default: ServerZeroTier VPN operating mode.

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