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RUTX11 Routing

Summary #

The Routing page is used to set up static and dynamic routes, routing tables and rules.

This manual page provides an overview of the Routing windows in RUTX11 devices.

If you’re having trouble finding this page or some of the parameters described here on your device’s WebUI, you should turn on “Advanced WebUI” mode. You can do that by clicking the “Basic” button under “Mode”, which is located at the top-right corner of the WebUI.

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Static Routes #

Routes ensure that network traffic finds its path to a specified host or network, both in local and remote network scenarios. Static routes are simply fixed routing entries in the routing table(s).

This section provides the possibility to configure custom static routes.

Static IPv4 Routes #

The Static IPv4 Routes section displays a list of user defined static IPv4 routes and provides the possibility to add and configure new ones. The list is empty by default.

Networking rutos manual routing static routes static ipv4 routes v1.png

To add a new route and begin editing, simply click the ‘Add’ button. Refer to the table below for information on static route configuration fields.

Networking rutos manual routing static routes static ipv4 routes new route v1.png
FieldValueDescription
Interfacenetwork interface; default: lanThe zone where the target network resides
Target*ip4; default: noneThe address of a destination network.
IPv4-Netmask*netmask; default: noneA netmask is used to divide an IP address into sub-networks (subnets). Combined together, the ‘Netmask’ and ‘Target’ values define the exact destination network or IP address to which this route applies.
IPv4-Gatewayip4; default: noneA gateway can be any machine in a network that is capable of serving as an access point to another network. Traffic that matches this route will be directed over the IP address specified in this field.
Metricinteger [0..255]; default: noneThe metric value acts as a measurement of priority. If a packet about to be routed matches two or more rules, the one with the lower metric is applied.
MTUinteger [64..9000]; default: 1500Sets the maximum transmission unit (MTU) size. It is the largest size of a protocol data unit (PDU) that can be transmitted in a single network layer transaction.
Route Typeunicast | local | broadcast | multicast | unreachable | prohibit | backhole | anycast | — custom — ; default: unicastSelects route type. Each type specifies a different behavior for the route:unicast – most common type of route, simply describes a path to a destination.local – routes of this type are added to the ‘local’ routing table and used only for locally hosted IPs.broadcast – routes of this type are added to the ‘local’ routing table and used by link layer devices that support the broadcast address principle.multicast – used for distribution of multicast traffic.unreachable – sends an ICMP “unreachable” response to the source address when a request for a routing decision returns a “destination with an unreachable route type” message.prohibit – used to prohibit traffic to specified host or network. When a destination is prohibited, the kernel sends a ‘Network is unreachable’ response the source address.blackhole – packets that match this type of route are discarded without any response.anycast – provides a possibility to route incoming requests to a multiple different network locations.— custom — – does not use any of the predefined route types.

*Additional notes on ‘Target’ & ‘Netmask’ fields:

You can define a rule that applies to a single IP like this:

  • Target: some IP
  • Netmask: 255.255.255.255

Furthermore, you can create target/netmask combinations that apply to a range of IPs. Refer to the table below for examples.

TargetNetmaskNetwork Range
192.168.2.0255.255.255.240192.168.2.0 – 192.168.2.15
192.168.2.240255.255.255.240192.168.2.240 – 192.168.2.255
192.168.2.161255.255.255.0192.168.2.0 – 192.168.55.255
192.168.0.0255.255.0.0192.168.0.0 – 192.168.255.255
192.168.2.161255.255.255.255192.168.2.161

Static IPv6 Routes #

The Static IPv6 Routes section displays a list of user defined static IPv6 routes and provides the possibility to add and configure new ones. The list is empty by default.

Networking rutos manual routing static routes static ipv6 routes v1.png

To add a new route and begin editing, simply click the ‘Add’ button. Refer to the table below for information on static route configuration fields.

Networking rutos manual routing static routes static ipv4 routes new route v1.png
FieldValueDescription
Interfacenetwork interface; default: lanThe zone where the target network resides
Targetip6; default: noneThe address of a destination network.
IPv6-Gatewayip6; default: noneA gateway can be any machine in a network that is capable of serving as an access point to another network. Traffic that matches this route will be directed over the IP address specified in this field.
Metricinteger [0..255]; default: noneThe metric value acts as a measurement of priority. If a packet about to be routed matches two or more rules, the one with the lower metric is applied.
MTUinteger [64..9000]; default: 1500Sets the maximum transmission unit (MTU) size. It is the largest size of a protocol data unit (PDU) that can be transmitted in a single network layer transaction.
Route Typeunicast | local | broadcast | multicast | unreachable | prohibit | backhole | anycast | — custom — ; default: unicastSelects route type. Each type specifies a different behavior for the route:unicast – most common type of route, simply describes a path to a destination.local – routes of this type are added to the ‘local’ routing table and used only for locally hosted IPs.broadcast – routes of this type are added to the ‘local’ routing table and used by link layer devices that support the broadcast address principle.multicast – used for distribution of multicast traffic.unreachable – sends an ICMP “unreachable” response to the source address when a request for a routing decision returns a “destination with an unreachable route type” message.prohibit – used to prohibit traffic to specified host or network. When a destination is prohibited, the kernel sends a ‘Network is unreachable’ response the source address.blackhole – packets that match this type of route are discarded without any response.anycast – provides a possibility to route incoming requests to a multiple different network locations.— custom — – does not use any of the predefined route types.

Advanced Static Routes #

The Advanced Static Routes section is used to configure policy-based routing infrastructures, which are usually used in more complex or specific networking scenarios.

Routing Tables #

Routing Tables store network routes. Tables are checked before every routing decision until a matching route is found. Having multiple tables allows the user to set up a policy routing infrastructure. Policy-based routing is a technique where routing decisions are based on policies (rule) set by the user.

The ‘Routing Tables’ section displays user created routing tables. By default, the list is empty.

Networking rutos manual routing advanced static routes routing tables v1.png

To create a new table, look to the ‘Add New Routing Table’ section below. Enter an ID for the new table in the range of [1..252], enter a custom name and click the ‘Add’ button. The new table should appear in the ‘Routing Tables’ list. Click the ‘Edit’ button next to it to begin editing.

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Refer to the table below for information on configuration fields for routing tables.

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FieldValueDescription
ID of Tableinteger [1..252]; default: noneUnique numerical identifier for the table. A table can be invoked by the both its ID or name.
Name of Tablestring; default: noneA custom name for the table. A table can be invoked by the both its ID or name.

Routing Rules For IPv4 #

Routing Rules provide a way to route certain packets with exceptions, i.e., in accordance to a rule. ‘Routing Rules For IPv4’ displays user defined routing rules. It is empty by default. To create a new rule, click the ‘Add’ button and begin editing by clicking the ‘Edit’ button located to the right of the newly created rule.

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Refer to table below for information on each configuration field.

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FieldValueDescription
Priorityinteger [0..65535]; default: noneControls the order of IP rules. Rules with a lower priority value will be checked first.
Incoming interfacenetwork interface | Any; default: AnyLogical interface name for incoming traffic. Select ‘Any’ to make the rule apply to all network interfaces.
Outgoing interfacenetwork interface | None; default: NoneLogical interface name for incoming traffic. Select ‘None’ to ignore outgoing interface.
Source subnetnetmask; default: noneSource subnet to match the rule.
Destination subnetnetmask; default: noneDestination subnet to match the rule.
TOS Value to Matchinteger [0..255]; default: noneThe type of service (ToS) value to match in IP headers.
Firewall Markinteger [0..255] | hex [0x00..0xFF]; default: noneSpecifies the fwmark and optionally its mask to match. For example, 0xFF to match mark 255 or 0x0/0x1 to match any even mark value.
Invert matchesoff | on; default: offIf enabled, the meaning of the match options (Firewall Mark, TOS Value, Source and Destination subnets) is inverted.
Matched Traffic ActionLookup Table | Jump to rule | Routing Action; default: Lookup TableWhen network traffic matches this rule, the device will take an action specified in this field:Lookup Table – routes traffic in accordance with the specified routing table.Jump to rule – specifies another routing rule to follow.Routing Action – executes one of four predefined routing actions.
Lookup Tablerouting table; default: noneSpecifies a table for routing traffic that matches this rule. This field is visible only when ‘Matched Traffic Action’ is set to Lookup Table.
Jump to rulerule priority number; default: noneSpecifies a another rule to follow for traffic that matches this rule. This field is visible only when ‘Matched Traffic Action’ is set to Jump to rule.
Routing ActionProhibit | Unreachable | Blackhole | Throw; default: ProhibitWhen traffic matches this rule, the action specified in this field will be executed. This field is visible only when ‘Matched Traffic Action’ is set to Routing Action.

Dynamic Routes #

Dynamic Routing provides the possibility to route data based on current network or device state instead of relying on static entries in the routing table. The RUTX11 device supports these dynamic routing protocols:

  • BGP (Border Gateway Protocol)
  • RIP (Routing Information Protocol)
  • OSPF (Open Shortest Path First)
  • EIGRP (Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol)
  • NHRP (Next Hop Resolution Protocol)

Each protocol is described in the sections below.

BGP #

The Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) is a standardized exterior gateway protocol designed to exchange routing and reachability information among autonomous systems (AS) on the Internet. The protocol is often classified as a path vector protocol but is sometimes also classed as a distance-vector routing protocol. The Border Gateway Protocol makes routing decisions based on paths, network policies, or rule-sets configured by a network administrator and is involved in making core routing decisions.

General Settings #

Below is an example of BGP General settings section.

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FieldValueDescription
Enableoff | on; default: offToggles the BGP protocol on or off
Enable vtyoff | on; default: offToggles vty access on or off
Import configUploads an external BGP configuration

BGP Instance #

Below is an example of BGP Instance settings section.

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FieldValueDescription
Enableoff | on; default: offToggles the BGP instance on or off
ASdefault: noneAS number is an identification of an autonomous system. BGP protocol uses the AS number for detecting whether the BGP connection is an internal one or external one. [Required]
BGP router IDdefault: noneThe router id is used by BGP to identify the routing device from which a packet originated. default router ID value is selected as the largest IP Address of the interface.
Networkdefault: noneAdd an announcement network(s)
Redistribution optionsdefault: noneRoute redistribution is a process that allows a network to use a routing protocol to dynamically route traffic based on information learned from a different routing protocol.
Deterministicoff | on; default: offCompare MED between same AS ignoring their age

BGP Peers #

Below is an example of BGP Peers section. You can create a new peer by clicking the ‘Add’ button.

Networking rutos manual routing dynamic routes bgp bgp peers v1.png
FieldValueDescription
Enableoff | on; default: offToggles the BGP peer on or off
Remote ASdefault: noneNeighbour’s remote AS
Remote addressIP; default: noneNeighbour’s remote IPv4 address

By pressing Edit button you can find more settings related to BGP Peer.

Networking rutos manual routing dynamic routes bgp bgp peers bgp peer v1.png
FieldValueDescription
Enableoff | on; default: offToggles BGP Peer on or off
Remote ASdefault: noneNeighbour’s remote AS
Remote addressIP; default: noneNeighbour’s remote IPv4 address
Remote portdefault: noneNeighbour’s remote port
EBGP Multihopdefault: noneTime to Live value
default originateoff | on; default: offAnnounce default routes to the peer
Descriptiondefault: noneYou can leave notes here

BGP Peer Groups #

Below is an example of BGP Peer Groups section. You can create a new group by writing a name and pressing Add button.

Networking rutos manual routing dynamic routes bgp bgp peer groups v1.png
FieldValueDescription
Remote ASdefault: noneNeighbour’s remote AS

By pressing ‘Edit’ button you can find more settings related to BGP Peer Groups.

Networking rutos manual routing dynamic routes bgp bgp peer groups bgp peer group v1.png
FieldValueDescription
Enableoff | on; default: offToggles the BGP Peer-Group on or off
Remote ASdefault: noneNeighbour’s remote AS
Neighbor addressIP; default: noneNeighbour’s remote IPv4 address
Advertisement intervaldefault: noneDelay between updates for a neighbor session
Neighbor configurationdefault: NoneConfigure a neighbor as Route Reflector or Route Server client.
Disable next hop calculationoff | on; default: offDisable the next hop calculation for this group
Inbound soft-reconfigurationoff | on; default: offAllow inbound soft reconfiguration for this neighbor
Disable connected checkoff | on; default: offOne-hop away EBGP peer using loopback address

Access List Filters #

Below is an example of Access List Filters section.

Networking rutos manual routing dynamic routes bgp access list filters v1.png

You can add a new list by simply pressing Add button.

Networking rutos manual routing dynamic routes bgp access list filters configuration v1.png
FieldValueDescription
Enableoff | on; default: offToggles the Access filter on or off
Peerbgp peer; default: first peer on listApplies the rule for the specified peer.
Actiondefault: PermitDenies or permits matched entry.
Networkdefault: AnyApplies filter rule for this source network.
Directiondefault: InboundIf direction is Inbound, the access list is applied to input routes. If direction is Outbound the access list is applied to advertised routes.

RIP Protocol #

The Routing Information Protocol (RIP) is one of the oldest distance-vector routing protocols which employ the hop count as a routing metric. RIP prevents routing loops by implementing a limit on the number of hops allowed in a path from source to destination. The maximum number of hops allowed for RIP is 15, which limits the size of networks that RIP can support. A hop count of 16 is considered an infinite distance and the route is considered unreachable. RIP implements the split horizon, route poisoning and holddown mechanisms to prevent incorrect routing information from being propagated.

General Settings #

Below is an example of RIP General settings section.

Networking rutos manual routing dynamic routes rip general settings v1.png
FieldValueDescription
Enableoff | on; default: offToggles RIP Protocol on or off
Enable vtyoff | on; default: offToggles vty access on or off
Import configUses imported RIP configurations.
Versiondefault: 2Specifies the version of RIP.
Neighbordefault: noneNeighbour IP addres

RIP Interfaces #

Below is an example of RIP Interfaces settings section.

Networking rutos manual routing dynamic routes rip rip interfaces v1.png
Networking rutos manual routing dynamic routes rip rip interfaces configuration v1.png
FieldValueDescription
Enableoff | on; default: offToggles RIP Interface on or off
Interfacenetwork interfaces; default: loopbackNetwork interface to be used with the RIP interface
Passive interfaceoff | on; default: offSets the specified interface to passive mode. On passive mode interface, all receiving packets are processed as normal and ripd does not send either multicast or unicast RIP packets

Access list filters #

Below is an example of Access list filters settings section.

Networking rutos manual routing dynamic routes rip access list filters v1.png
Networking rutos manual routing dynamic routes rip access list filters configuration v1.png
FieldValueDescription
Enableoff | on; default: offToggles the Access filter on or off
RIP interfaceRIP interface; default: first interface on listApplies the rule for the specified interface
Actiondefault: PermitDenies or permits matched entry
Networkdefault: AnyApplies filter rule for this source network.
Directiondefault: InboundIf direction is Inbound, the access list is applied to input routes. If direction is Outbound the access list is applied to advertised routes.

OSPF Protocol #

Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) is a routing protocol for Internet Protocol (IP) networks. It uses a link state routing (LSR) algorithm and falls into the group of interior gateway protocols (IGPs), operating within a single autonomous system (AS). It is defined as OSPF Version 2 in RFC 2328 for IPv4.

General Settings #

Below is an example of OSPF General settings section.

Networking rutos manual routing dynamic routes ospf protocol general settings v1.png
FieldValueDescription
Enableoff | on; default: offToggles OSPF Protocol on or off
Enable vtyoff | on; default: offToggles vty access on or off
ImportUses imported OSPF configurations
Router IDdefault: noneSets the router-ID of the OSPF process. The router-ID may be an IP address of the router, but need not be – it can be any arbitrary 32bit number

OSPF Interface #

Below is an example of OSPF Interface settings section.

Networking rutos manual routing dynamic routes ospf protocol ospf interface v1.png

By pressing the Edit button you can find more settings related to OSPF Interface.

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You should directed to a window such as this:

Networking rutos manual routing dynamic routes ospf protocol oqspf interface configuration v1.png
FieldValueDescription
Enableoff | on; default: offToggles OSPF area on or off
Costdefault: noneThe cost value is set to router-LSA’s metric field and used for SPF calculation
Hello Intervaldefault: 10This value controls how frequently (every n seconds) a ‘Hello’ packet is sent out on the specified interface
Router Dead Intervaldefault: 40This value must be the same for all routers attached to a common network
Retransmitdefault: 5This value is used when re-transmitting Database Description and Link State Request packets
Prioritydefault: 1The router with the highest priority will be more eligible to become Designated Router. Setting the value to 0, makes the router ineligible to become Designated Router
Typedefault: noneOSPF interface configuration type.
Authenticationdefault: NoneAuthentication method.

OSPF Area #

Below is an example of OSPF Area settings section.

Networking rutos manual routing dynamic routes ospf protocol ospf area v1.png

To add a new OSPF area, look to the ‘Add New Area’ section. Enter a custom name and click the ‘Add’ button. Your new area will appear in the ‘OSPF Area’ list.

Networking rutos manual routing dynamic routes ospf protocol ospf area configuration v1.png
FieldValueDescription
Enableoff | on; default: offToggles OSPF area on or off
CostIP;default: noneSpecifies OSPF area

OSPF Networks #

Below is an example of OSPF Networks settings section.

Networking rutos manual routing dynamic routes ospf protocol ospf networks v1.png

To add a new OSPF network, look to the ‘Add New Network’ section. Enter a custom name and click the ‘Add’ button. Your new network will appear in the ‘OSPF Networks’ list.

Networking rutos manual routing dynamic routes ospf protocol ospf networks configuration v1.png
FieldValueDescription
Enableoff | on; default: offToggles OSPF network on or off
Network[a.b.c.d/m]; default: noneThis command specifies the OSPF enabled interface. If the interface has an address from the range a.b.c.d/m then enables OSPF on this interface so the router can provide network information to the other OSPF routers via this interface
AreaOSPF area; default: noneSpecifies OSPF area

EIGRP #

Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) is an advanced distance-vector routing protocol that is used on a computer network for automating routing decisions and configuration.

General #

Below is an example of EIGRP General settings section.

Networking rutos manual routing dynamic routes eigrp general settings v1.png
FieldValueDescription
Enableoff | on; default: offToggles EIGRP network on or off
Enable loggingoff | on; default: offEnable logging of EIGRP
ASdefault: noneEIGRP uses this number so that it makes sure it only talks to other EIGRP speakers that are in the same AS. For instance, if you have two routers, one with “router eigrp 1” and one with “router eigrp 2,” then they would not form an adjacency
Router IDIP; default: noneEIGRP router-ID in IP address format
NetworkIP; default: noneThe announcement network
Redistribution optionsdefault: noneRoute redistribution is a process that allows a network to use a routing protocol to dynamically route traffic based on information learned from a different routing protocol.
NeighborsIP; default: noneNeighbour IP addres

NHRP Protocol #

Next Hop Resolution Protocol (NHRP) is a protocol or method that can be used so that a computer sending data to another computer can learn the most direct route (the fewest number of hops) to the receiving computer.

General Settings #

Below is an example of NHRP General settings section.

Networking rutos manual routing dynamic routes nhrp general settings v1.png
FieldValueDescription
Enable serviceoff | on; default: offToggles NHRP network on or off
Enable loggingoff | on; default: offToggles NHRP logging on or off

Interfaces #

Below is an example of NHRP Interfaces settings section. By default, it is empty.

Networking rutos manual routing dynamic routes nhrp interfaces v1.png

To add a new NHRP interface, look to the ‘Add New Interface’ section. Enter a custom name and click the ‘Add’ button. Your new interface will appear in the ‘Interfaces’ list.

Networking rutos manual routing dynamic routes nhrp interfaces begin to edit v1.png
FieldValueDescription
Enableoff | on; default: offToggles interface on or off
NHRP Interface Configuration #

By pressing the Edit button you can find more settings related to NHRP Interface.

Networking rutos manual routing dynamic routes nhrp interfaces interface configuration v1.png
FieldValueDescription
Enabledoff | on; default: offEnables DMVPN client
Interfacedefault: br-lanInterface which will be using NHRP
Network IDdefault: noneNetwork ID of NHRP
NHSDynamic | custom; default: noneIP address of Next-Hop Server.
NBMAdefault: noneNon-Broadcast Multi-Access(NBMA) network IP address
Hold-timedefault: 7200Specifies the holding time for NHRP Registration Requests and Resolution Replies sent from this interface or shortcut-target. The holdtime is specified in seconds and defaults to two hours.
IPsec supportoff | on; default: offUse NHRP over IPsec
IP addressIP; default: noneNetwork ID of NHRP
NBMAIP; default: noneIP address of Next-Hop Server
NHRP Mappings Configuration #

Below is an example of the NHRP Mappings Configuration section.

Networking rutos manual routing dynamic routes nhrp interfaces nhrp mappings configuration v1.png

To add a new configuration click the ‘Add’ button and it will appear in the ‘NHRP Mappings Configuration’ list.

Networking rutos manual routing dynamic routes nhrp interfaces nhrp mappings configuration edit v1.png
FieldValueDescription
Enabledoff | on; default: offTurns this mapping configuration on or off.
IP Addressip; default: noneNetwork ID of another NHRP.
NBMAip; default: noneIP address of next-hop server.

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