Select Page

RUTX11 VPN

Summary #

Virtual Private Network (VPN) is a method of connecting multiple private networks across the Internet. VPNs can serve to achieve many different goals, but some of its main purposes are:

  • access between remote private networks;
  • data encryption;
  • anonymity when browsing the Internet.

This page is an overview of the different types of VPNs supported by RUTX11 devices.

OpenVPN #

OpenVPN is an open-source software application that implements virtual private network (VPN) techniques for creating secure point-to-point or site-to-site connections in routed or bridged configurations and remote access facilities. It is often regarded as being the most universal VPN protocol because of its flexibility, support of SSL/TLS security, multiple encryption methods, many networking features and compatibility with most OS platforms.

RUTX11 devices run OpenVPN version 2.4.5.

OpenVPN client #

An OpenVPN client is an entity that initiates a connection to an OpenVPN server. To create a new client instance, go to the Services → VPN → OpenVPN section, select Role: Client, enter a custom name and click the ‘Add’ button. An OpenVPN client instance with the given name will appear in the “OpenVPN Configuration” list.

To begin configuration, click the button that looks liek a pencil next to the client instance. Refer to the figure and table below for information on the OpenVPN client’s configuration fields:

Networking trb2 vpn openvpn client configuration v1.png
FieldValueDescription
Enableoff | on; default: offTurns the OpenVPN instance on or off.
Enable OpenVPN config from fileoff | on; default: offEnables or disables custom OpenVPN config from file.
TUN/TAPTUN (tunnel) | TAP (bridged); default: TUN (tunnel)Virtual network device type.TUN – a virtual point-to-point IP link which operates at the network layer (OSI layer 3), used when routing is required.TAP – a virtual Ethernet adapter (switch), operates at the data link layer (OSI layer 2), used when bridging is required.
ProtocolUDP | TCP| UDP6 | TCP6; default: UDPTransfer protocol used by the OpenVPN connection.Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) – most commonly used protocol in the Internet Protocol (IP) suite. It ensures the recipient will receive packets in the order they were sent by numbering, analysing response messages, checking for errors and resending them if an issue occurs. It should be used when reliability is crucial (for example, in file transfer).User Datagram Protocol (UDP) – packets are sent to the recipient without error-checking or back-and-forth quality control, meaning that when packets are lost, they are gone forever. This makes it less reliable but faster than TCP; therefore, it should be used when transfer speed is crucial (for example, in video streaming, live calls).
Portinteger [0..65535]; default: 1194TCP/UDP port number used for the connection. Make sure it matches the port number specified on the server side.
NOTE: traffic on the selected port will be automatically allowed in the device firewall rules.
LZOYes | No | None; default: NoneTurns LZO data compression on or off.
EncryptionDES-CBC 64 | RC2-CBC 128 | DES-EDE-CBC 128 | DES-EDE3-CBC 192 | DESX-CBC 192 | BF-CBC 128 | RC2-40-CBC 40 | CAST5-CBC 128 | RC2-40CBC 40 | CAST5-CBC 128 | RC2-64-CBC 64| AES-128-CBC 128 | AES-192-CBC 192 | AES-256-CBC 256 | none; default: BF-CBC 128Algorithm used for packet encryption.
AuthenticationTLS | Static Key | Password | TLS/Password; default: TLSAuthentication mode, used to secure data sessions.Static key is a secret key used for server–client authentication.TLS authentication mode uses X.509 type certificates:Certificate Authority (CA)Client certificateClient keyAll mentioned certificates can be generated using OpenVPN or Open SSL utilities on any type of host machine. One of the most popular utilities used for this purpose is called Easy-RSA.Password is a simple username/password based authentication where the owner of the OpenVPN server provides the login data.TLS/Password uses both TLS and username/password authentication.
TLS: TLS cipherAll | DHE+RSA | Custom; default: AllPacket encryption algorithm cipher.
TLS: Allowed TLS ciphersAll | DHE+RSA | Custom; default: AllA list of TLS ciphers accepted by this connection.
Remote host/IP addressip; default: noneIP address or hostname of an OpenVPN server.
Resolve retryinteger | infinite; default: infiniteIn case server hostname resolve fails, this field indicates the amount of time (in seconds) to retry the resolve. Specify infinite to retry indefinitely.
Keep alivetwo integers separated by a space; default: noneDefines two time intervals: the first is used to periodically send ICMP requests to the OpenVPN server, the second one defines a time window, which is used to restart the OpenVPN service if no ICMP response is received during the specified time slice. When this value is specfiied on the OpenVPN server, it overrides the ‘keep alive’ values set on client instances.
Example10 120
Static key: Local tunnel endpoint IPip; default: noneIP address of the local OpenVPN network interface.
Static key: Remote tunnel endpoint IPip; default: noneIP address of the remote OpenVPN network (server) interface.
Remote network IP addressip; default: noneLAN IP address of the remote network (server).
Remote network IP netmasknetmask; default: noneLAN IP subnet mask of the remote network (server).
Password: User namestring; default: noneUsername used for authentication to the OpenVPN server.
Password: Passwordstring; default: nonePassword used for authentication to the OpenVPN server.
Extra optionsstring; default: noneExtra OpenVPN options to be used by the OpenVPN instance.
TLS/Password: HMAC authentication algorithmnone | SHA1 | SHA256 | SHA384 | SHA512; default: SHA1HMAC authentication algorithm type.
TLS/Password: Additional HMAC authenticationoff | on; default: offAn additional layer of HMAC authentication on top of the TLS control channel to protect against DoS attacks.
TLS/Password: HMAC authentication key.key file; default: noneUploads an HMAC authentication key file.
TLS/Password: HMAC key direction0 | 1 | none; default: 1The value of the key direction parameter should be complementary on either side (client and server) of the connection. If one side uses 0, the other side should use 1, or both sides should omit the parameter altogether.
TLS/Password: Certificate authority.ca file; default: noneCertificate authority is an entity that issues digital certificates. A digital certificate certifies the ownership of a public key by the named subject of the certificate.
TLS: Client certificate.crt file; default: noneClient certificate is a type of digital certificate that is used by client systems to make authenticated requests to a remote server. Client certificates play a key role in many mutual authentication designs, providing strong assurances of a requester’s identity.
TLS: Client key.key file; default: noneAuthenticates the client to the server and establishes precisely who they are.
TLS: Private key decryption password (optional)string; default: noneA password used to decrypt the server’s private key. Use only if server’s .key file is encrypted with a password.
Static key: Static pre-shared key.key file; default: noneUploads a secret key file used for server–client authentication.

Additional notes:

  • Some configuration fields become available only when certain other parameters are selected. The names of the parameters are followed by a prefix that specifies the authentication type under which they become visible. Different color codes are used for different prefixes:
    • Red for Authentication: TLS
    • Purple for Authentication: Static key
    • Blue for Authentication: Password
  • After changing any of the parameters, don’t forget to click the Save & Apply button located at the bottom-right side of the page.

OpenVPN server #

An OpenVPN server is an entity that waits for incoming connections from OpenVPN clients. To create a new server instance, go to the Services → VPN → OpenVPN section, select Role: Server, enter a custom name and click the ‘Add’ button. An OpenVPN server instance with the given name will appear in the “OpenVPN Configuration” list. Only one OpenVPN server instance is allowed to be added.

A server needs to have a public IP address in order to be available from the public network (the Internet).

To begin configuration, click the button that looks like a pencil next to the server instance. Refer to the figure and table below for information on the OpenVPN server’s configuration fields:

Networking rutx vpn openvpn server configuration v2.png
FieldValueDescription
Enableoff | on; default: offTurns the OpenVPN instance on or off.
Enable OpenVPN config from fileoff | on; default: offEnables or disables custom OpenVPN config from file.
TUN/TAPTUN (tunnel) | TAP (bridged); default: TUN (tunnel)Virtual network device type.TUN – a virtual point-to-point IP link which operates at the network layer (OSI layer 3), used when routing is required.TAP – a virtual Ethernet adapter (switch), operates at the data link layer (OSI layer 2), used when bridging is required.
ProtocolUDP | TCP| UDP6 | TCP6; default: UDPTransfer protocol used by the OpenVPN connection.Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) – most commonly used protocol in the Internet Protocol (IP) suite. It ensures the recipient will receive packets in the order they were sent by numbering, analysing response messages, checking for errors and resending them if an issue occurs. It should be used when reliability is crucial (for example, file transfer).User Datagram Protocol (UDP) – packets are sent to the recipient without error-checking or back-and-forth quality control, meaning that when packets are lost, they are gone forever. This makes it less reliable but faster than TCP; therefore, it should be used when transfer speed is crucial (for example, video streaming, live calls).
Portinteger [0..65535]; default: 1194TCP/UDP port number used for the connection. Make sure it matches the port number specified on the server side.
NOTE: traffic on the selected port will be automatically allowed in device firewall rules.
LZOYes | No | None; default: NoneTurns LZO data compression on or off.
EncryptionDES-CBC 64 | RC2-CBC 128 | DES-EDE-CBC 128 | DES-EDE3-CBC 192 | DESX-CBC 192 | BF-CBC 128 | RC2-40-CBC 40 | CAST5-CBC 128 | RC2-40CBC 40 | CAST5-CBC 128 | RC2-64-CBC 64| AES-128-CBC 128 | AES-192-CBC 192 | AES-256-CBC 256 | none; default: BF-CBC 128Algorithm used for packet encryption.
AuthenticationTLS | Static Key | TLS/Password; default: TLSAuthentication mode, used to secure data sessions.Static key is a secret key used for server–client authentication.TLS authentication mode uses X.509 type certificates:Certificate Authority (CA)Client certificateClient keyAll mentioned certificates can be generated using OpenVPN or Open SSL utilities on any type of host machine. One of the most popular utilities used for this purpose is called Easy-RSA.TLS/Password uses both TLS and username/password authentication.
Static key: Local tunnel endpoint IPip; default: noneIP address of the local OpenVPN network interface.
Static key: Remote tunnel endpoint IPip; default: noneIP address of the remote OpenVPN network (client) interface.
Static key: Remote network IP addressip; default: noneLAN IP address of the remote network (client).
Static key: Remote network IP netmasknetmask; default: noneLAN IP subnet mask of the remote network (client).
TLS/TLS/Password: TLS cipherAll | DHE+RSA | Custom; default: AllPacket encryption algorithm cipher.
TLS/Password: Allowed TLS ciphersAll | DHE+RSA | Custom; default: AllA list of TLS ciphers accepted by this connection.
TLS/TLS/Password: Client to clientoff | on; default: offAllows OpenVPN clients to communicate with each other on the VPN network.
TLS/TLS/Password: Keep alivetwo integers separated by a space; default: noneDefines two time intervals: the first is used to periodically send ICMP requests to the OpenVPN server, the second one defines a time window, which is used to restart the OpenVPN service if no ICMP response is received during the specified time slice. When this value is specifiied on the OpenVPN server, it overrides the ‘keep alive’ values set on client instances.
Example10 120
TLS/TLS/Password: Virtual network IP addressip; default: noneIP address of the OpenVPN network.
TLS/TLS/Password: Virtual network netmasknetmask; default: noneSubnet mask of the OpenVPN network.
TLS/TLS/Password: Push optionOpenVPN options; default: nonePush options are a way to “push” routes and other additional OpenVPN options to connecting clients.
TLS/TLS/Password: Allow duplicate certificatesoff | on; default: offWhen enabled allows multiple clients to connect using the same certificates.
TLS/Password: User namestring; default: noneUsername used for authentication to this OpenVPN server.
TLS/Password: Passwordstring; default: nonePassword used for authentication to this OpenVPN server.
Static key: Static pre-shared key.key file; default: noneUploads a secret key file used for server–client authentication.
TLS/TLS/Password: Certificate authority.ca file; default: noneCertificate authority is an entity that issues digital certificates. A digital certificate certifies the ownership of a public key by the named subject of the certificate.
TLS/TLS/Password: Server certificate.crt file; default: noneA type of digital certificate that is used to identify the OpenVPN server.
TLS/TLS/Password: Server key.key file; default: noneAuthenticates clients to the server.
TLS/TLS/Password: Diffie Hellman parameters.pem file; default: noneDH parameters define how OpenSSL performs the Diffie-Hellman (DH) key-exchange.
TLS/TLS/Password: CRL file (optional).pem file | .crl file; Default: noneA certificate revocation list (CRL) file is a list of certificates that have been revoked by the certificate authority (CA). It indicates which certificates are no longer acccepted by the CA and therefore cannot be authenticated to the server.

Additional notes:

  • Some configuration fields become available only when certain other parameters are selected. The names of the parameters are followed by a prefix that specifies the authentication type under which they become visible. Different color codes are used for different prefixes:
    • Red for Authentication: TLS
    • Purple for Authentication: Static key
    • Blue for Authentication: TLS/Password
  • After changing any of the parameters, don’t forget to click the Save & Apply button located at the bottom-right side of the page.

TLS Clients #

TLS Clients is a way to differentiate clients by their Common Names (CN), which are found in the client certificate file. It can be used to assign specific VPN addresses to corresponding clients and bind them to their LAN addresses, making the server aware of which client has which LAN IP address.

The TLS Clients section can be found in the OpenVPN Server configuration window, provided that the OpenVPN server uses TLS or TLS/Password authentication methods. To create a new TLS client, type in the new client‘s name in the text field found bellow the TLS Clients tab and click the ‘Add’ button. Refer to the figure and table below for information on the TLS Clients’ configuration fields:

Networking rutx vpn openvpn tls clients configuration v2.png
FieldValueDescription
Endpoint namestring; default: noneA custom name for the client.
Common name (CN)string; default: noneClient’s Common Name (CN) found in the client certificate file.
Virtual local endpointip; default: noneClient’s local address in the virtual network.
Virtual remote endpointip; default: noneClient’s remote address in the virtual network.
Private networkip; default: noneClient’s private network (LAN) IP address.
Private netmasknetmask; default: noneClient’s private network (LAN) IP netmask.

GRE #

Generic Routing Encapsulation (GRE) is a tunneling protocol used to establish point-to-point connections between remote private networks. GRE tunnels encapsulate data packets in order to route other protocols over IP networks.

GRE: main & tunnel settings #

To create a new GRE instance, go to the Services → VPN → GRE section, enter a custom name and click the ‘Add’ button. A GRE instance with the given name will appear in the “GRE Configuration” list.

To begin configuration, click the button that looks like a pencil located next to the instance. Refer to the figure and table below for information on the fields located in the GRE instance configuration section.

Networking rutx vpn gre gre configuration main settings v2.png
FieldValueDescription
Enabledoff | on; default: offTurns the GRE instance on or off.
Tunnel sourcenetwork interface; default: noneNetwork interface used to establish the GRE Tunnel.
Remote endpoint IP addressip; default: noneExternal IP address of another GRE instance used to establish the initial connection between peers.
MTUinteger; default: 1476Sets the maximum transmission unit (MTU) size. It is the largest size of a protocol data unit (PDU) that can be transmitted in a single network layer transaction.
TTLinteger [0..255]; default: 255Sets a custom TTL (Time to Live) value for encapsulated packets. TTL is a field in the IP packet header which is initially set by the sender and decreased by 1 on each hop. When it reaches 0 it is dropped and the last host to receive the packet sends an ICMP “Time Exceeded” message back to the source.
Outbound keyinteger [0..65535]; default: noneA key used to identify outgoing packets. This value should match the “Inbound key” value set on the opposite GRE instance or both key values should be omitted on both sides.
Inbound keyinteger [0..65535]; default: noneA key used to identify incoming packets. This value should match the “Outbound key” value set on the opposite GRE instance or both key values should be omitted on both sides.
Path MTU Discoveryoff | on; default: onWhen unchecked, sets the nopmtudisc option for tunnel. Can not be used together with the TTL option.
Keep aliveoff | on; default: offTurns “keep alive” on or off. The “keep alive” feature sends packets to the remote instance in order to determine the health of the connection. If no response is received, the device will attempt to re-establish the tunnel.
Keep alive intervalinteger [0..255]; default: noneFrequency (in seconds) at which “keep alive” packets are sent to the remote instance.
Local GRE interface IP addressip; default: noneIP address of the local GRE Tunnel network interface.
Local GRE interface netmasknetmask; default: noneSubnet mask of the local GRE Tunnel network interface.

GRE: routing settings #

Routing settings are used to configure routes to networks that are behind the device that hosts the opposite GRE instance. To add a new route, simply click the ‘Add’ button. For information on configuring the route refer to the figure and table below.

Networking rutx vpn gre gre configuration routing settings v2.png
FieldValueDescription
Remote subnet IP addressip; default: noneIP address of the network behind the device that hosts the remote GRE instance.
Remote subnet netmasknetmask; default: noneSubnet mask of the network behind the device that hosts the remote GRE instance.

IPsec #

To create a new IPsec instance, go to the Services → VPN → IPsec section, enter a custom name and click the ‘Add’ button. An IPsec instance with the given name will appear in the “IPsec Configuration” list.

To begin configuration, click the button that looks like a pencil located next to the instance.

IPsec instance #

The general settings section is used to configure the main IPsec parameters. Refer to the figure and table below for information on the configuration fields located in the general settings section.

Networking rutx vpn ipsec ipsec configuration general v2.png
FieldValueDescription
Enableoff | on; default: offTurns the IPsec instance on or off.
Remote endpointhost | ip; default: noneIP address or hostname of the remote IPsec instance.
Authentication methodPre-shared key | X.509; default: Pre-shared keySpecify authentication method. Choose between Pre-shared key and X.509 certificates.
Pre-shared key: Pre shared keystring; default: noneA shared password used for authentication between IPsec peers before a secure channel is established.
X.509: Key.key file; default: noneA public key file.
X.509: Local Certificate.pem file; default: noneA local certificate file.
X.509: CA Certificate.crt file; default: noneA certificate authority file.
Local identifierip | string; default: noneDefines how the user (left participant) will be identified during authentication.IP – Internet Protocol address.FQDN – identity defined by fully qualified domain name. It is the complete domain name for a host (for example, something.somedomain.com). Only supported with IKEv2.
Remote identifierip | string; default: noneDefines how the right participant will be identified during authentication.IP – Internet Protocol address.FQDN – identity defined by fully qualified domain name. It is the complete domain name for a host (for example, something.somedomain.com). Only supported with IKEv2.

Additional notes:

  • Some configuration fields become available only when certain other parameters are selected. The names of the parameters are followed by a prefix that specifies the authentication type under which they become visible. Different color codes are used for different prefixes:
    • Chocolate for Authentication method: Pre-shared key
    • Dark red for Authentication method: X.509

Advanced settings #

The Advanced settings section is only visible when X.509 is selected as Authentication method.

Networking rutx vpn ipsec ipsec configuration general advanced v1.png
FieldValueDescription
Remote Certificate.crt file; default: noneA remote certificate file.

IPsec instance: connection settings #

The connection settings section is used to configure the main parameters of an IPsec connection. Refer to the figure and table below for information on the configuration fields located in the connection settings section.

General settings #

Networking rutx vpn ipsec ipsec configuration connection settings v1.png
FieldValueDescription
ModeStart | Add | Route; default: StartSpecifies which operation will be done automatically at IPSec startup.
TypeTunnel | Transport; default: TunnelType of connection.Tunnel – protects internal routing information by encapsulating the entire IP packet (IP header and payload); commonly used in site-to-site VPN connections; supports NAT traversal.Transport – only encapsulates IP payload data; used in client-to-site VPN connections; does not support NAT traversal; usually implemented with other tunneling protocols (for example, L2TP).
Tunnel: Local subnetip/netmask | default: noneLocal IP address and subnet mask used to determine which part of the network can be accessed in the VPN network. Netmask range [0..32]. If left empty, IP address will be selected automatically.
Tunnel: Remote subnetip/netmask; default: noneRemote network IP address and subnet mask used to determine which part of the network can be accessed in the VPN network. Netmask range [0..32]. This value must differ from the device’s LAN IP.
Transport: Bind toGRE interface; default: noneBind to GRE interface to create GRE over IPsec.
Key exchangeIKEv1 | IKEv2; default: IKEv1Internet Key Exchange (IKE) version used for key exchange.IKEv1 – more commonly used but contains known issues, for example, dealing with NAT.IKEv2 – updated version with increased and improved capabilities, such as integrated NAT support, supported multihosting, deprecated exchange modes (does not use main or aggressive mode; only 4 messages required to establish a connection).
Tunnel: Default routeoff | on; default: offTurn on to route all traffic through IPSec tunnel.

Additional notes:

  • Some configuration fields become available only when certain other parameters are selected. The names of the parameters are followed by a prefix that specifies the authentication type under which they become visible. Different color codes are used for different prefixes:
    • Red for Type: Tunnel
    • Purple for Type: Transport

Advanced settings #

Networking rutx vpn ipsec ipsec configuration connection settings advanced v1.png
FieldValueDescription
Aggressiveoff | on; default: offTurn aggressive mode on or off for outgoing connections.
Force encapsulationoff | on; default: offForces UDP encapsulation for ESP packets even if a “no NAT” situation is detected.
Local firewalloff | on; default: onAdds neccessary firewall rules to allow traffic of this IPsec instance on this device.
Remote firewalloff | on; default: onAdds neccessary firewall rules to allow traffic of from the opposite IPsec instance on this device.
Inactivityinteger; default: noneDefines timeout interval, after which a CHILD_SA is closed if it did not send or receive any traffic.
Dead Peer Detectionoff | on; default: offA function used during Internet Key Exchange (IKE) to detect a “dead” peer. It used to reduce traffic by minimizing the number of messages when the opposite peer in unavailable and as failover mechanism.
Dead Peer Detection: DPD actionRestart | Hold | Clear | None; default: RestartControls the use of the Dead Peer Detection protocol where notification messages are periodically sent in order to check the liveliness of the IPsec peer.
Dead Peer Detection: DPD Delayinteger; default: noneThe frequency of sending R_U_THERE messages or INFORMATIONAL exchanges to peer.
Tunnel: Remote source IPip; default: noneThe internal source IP to use in a tunnel for the remote (right) peer.
Tunnel: Local source IPip; default: noneThe internal (left) source IP to use in a tunnel, also known as virtual IP.
Tunnel: Remote DNSip; default: noneList of DNS server addresses to exchange as configuration attributes. On the responder, only fixed IPv4/IPv6 addresses are allowed and define DNS servers assigned to the client.
Locally allowed protocolsstring; default: noneAllowed protocols and ports over connection, also called Port Selectors. Defines in form of ‘protocol/port’ eg:’17/1701′ or ’17/%any’ or ‘udp/l2f’.
Remotely allowed protocolsstring; default: noneAllowed protocols and ports over connection, also called Port Selectors. Defines in form of ‘protocol/port’ eg:’17/1701′ or ’17/%any’ or ‘udp/l2f’.
Custom optionstring; default: noneAdd custom connection parameters.
Local source IPip; default: noneThe internal (left) source IP to use in a tunnel, also known as virtual IP.
Tunnel: Passthroughinterface(s); default: noneChoose interface(s) for passthrough.

Additional notes:

  • Some configuration fields become available only when certain other parameters are selected. The names of the parameters are followed by a prefix that specifies the authentication type under which they become visible. Different color codes are used for different prefixes:
    • Red for Type: Tunnel
    • Blue for Dead Peer Detection: Enabled

IPsec instance: proposal settings #

The proposal settings section is used to configure IKE (Internet Key Exchange) phase 1 & 2 settings. IKE is a protocol used to set up security associations (SAs) for the IPsec connection. This process is required before any IPsec tunnel can be established. It is done in two phases:

PhaseMode
Phase 1Establishes a secure channel between peersAuthenticates peersNegotiates SA policyShares secret keysEstablishes secure tunnel for phase 2Main mode (figure 1)6 packets exchangedIdentity protected during exchangeAggressive mode (figure 2)3 packets exchangedIdentity information exchanged before a secure channel is established
Phase 2Sets up matching IPsec SAsPeriodically renegotiates IPsec SAsQuick mode3 packets exchangedIPsec SA parameters (ESP/AH, SHA/MD5) establishedSA lifetime set
Figure 1
Figure 2

Phase 1 #

Networking rutx vpn ipsec ipsec configuration proposal settings phase1 v1.png
FieldValueDescription
Encryption algorithm3DES | AES 128 | AES 192 | AES 256 | AES128 GCM8 | AES192 GCM8 | AES256 GCM8 | AES128 GCM12 | AES192 GCM12 | AES256 GCM12 | AES128 GCM16 | AES192 GCM16 | AES256 GCM16; default: AES 128Algorithm used for data encryption.
AuthenticationMD5 | SHA1 | SHA256 | SHA384 | SHA512; default: SHA1Algorithm used for exchanging authentication and hash information.
DH groupMODP768 | MODP1024 | MODP1536 | MODP2048 | MODP3072 | MODP4096 | ECP192 | ECP224 | ECP256 | ECP384 | ECP521; default: MODP1536Diffie-Hellman (DH) group used in the key exchange process. Higher group numbers provide more security, but take longer and use more resources to compute the key. Must match with another incoming connection to establish IPSec.
Force crypto proposaloff | on; default: offOnly chosen proposals will be used when turned on.
IKE Lifetimestring; default: noneHow long the keying channel of a connection (ISAKMP or IKE SA) should last before being renegotiated. The time is specified in seconds. The s, m, h and d suffixes explicitly define the units for seconds, minutes, hours and days, respectively.

Phase 2 #

Networking rutx vpn ipsec ipsec configuration proposal settings phase2 v1.png
FieldValueDescription
Hash algorithm3DES | AES 128 | AES 192 | AES 256 | AES128 GCM8 | AES192 GCM8 | AES256 GCM8 | AES128 GCM12 | AES192 GCM12 | AES256 GCM12 | AES128 GCM16 | AES192 GCM16 | AES256 GCM16; default: AES 128Algorithm used for data encryption.
Hash algorithmMD5 | SHA1 | SHA256 | SHA384 | SHA512; default: SHA1Algorithm used for exchanging authentication and hash information.
PFS groupMODP768 | MODP1024 | MODP1536 | MODP2048 | MODP3072 | MODP4096 | ECP192 | ECP224 | ECP256 | ECP384 | ECP521; default: MODP1536The PFS (Perfect Forward Secrecy). Must match with another incoming connection to establish IPSec.
Force crypto proposaloff | on; default: offOnly chosen proposals will be used when turned on.
Lifetimestring; default: noneHow long the keying channel of a connection (ISAKMP or IKE SA) should last before being renegotiated. The time is specified in seconds. The s, m, h and d suffixes explicitly define the units for seconds, minutes, hours and days, respectively.

PPTP #

Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) is a type of VPN protocol that uses a TCP control channel and a Generic Routing Encapsulation tunnel to encapsulate PPP packets.

PPTP client #

PPTP client is an entity that initiates a connection to a PPTP server. To create a new client instance, go to the Services → VPN → PPTP section, select Role: Client, enter a custom name and click the ‘Add’ button. A PPTP client instance with the given name will appear in the “PPTP Configuration” list.

To begin configuration, click the button that looks like a pencil next to the client instance. Refer to the figure and table below for information on the PPTP client’s configuration fields:

Networking rutx vpn pptp client configuration v2.png
FieldValueDescription
Enableoff | on; default: offTurns the PPTP instance on or off.
Serverip | host; default: noneIP address or hostname of a PPTP server.
Usernamestring; default: noneUsername used for authentication to the PPTP server.
Passwordstring; default: nonePassword used for authentication to the PPTP server.
Default routeoff | on; default: offWhen turned on, this connection will become the device default route. This means that all traffic directed to the Internet will go through the PPTP server and the server’s IP address will be seen as this device’s source IP to other hosts on the Internet.

PPTP server #

PPTP server is an entity that waits for incoming connections from PPTP clients. To create a new server instance, go to the Services → VPN → PPTP section, select Role: Server, enter a custom name and click the ‘Add’ button. A PPTP server instance with the given name will appear in the “PPTP Configuration” list. Only one PPTP server instance is allowed to be added.

A server needs to have a public IP address in order to be available from the public network (the Internet).

To begin configuration, click the button that looks like a pencil next to the server instance. Refer to the figure and table below for information on the PPTP server’s configuration fields:

Networking rutx vpn pptp server configuration v2.png
FieldValueDescription
Enableoff | on; default: offTurns the PPTP instance on or off.
Local IPip; default: 192.168.0.1IP address of this PPTP network interface.
Remote IP range startip; default: 192.168.0.20PPTP IP address leases will begin from the address specified in this field.
Remote IP range endip; default: 192.168.0.30PPTP IP address leases will end with the address specified in this field.
User namestring; default: noneUsername used for authentication to this PPTP server.
Passwordstring; default: nonePassword used for authentication to this PPTP server.
PPTP Client’s IPip; default: noneAssigns an IP address to the client that uses the adjacent authentication info. This field is optional and if left empty the client will simply receive an IP address from the IP pool defined above.

SSTP #

Secure Socket Tunneling Protocol (SSTP) is a VPN protocol designed to transport PPP traffic via a secure SSL/TLS channel.

SSTP configuration #

To create a new SSTP instance, go to the Services → VPN → SSTP section, enter a custom name and click the ‘Add’ button. An SSTP instance with the given name will appear in the “SSTP Configuration” list.

To begin configuration, click the ‘Edit’ button located next to the instance. Refer to the figure and table below for information on the SSTP instance’s configuration fields:

Networking rutx vpn sstp configuration v1.png
FieldValueDescription
Enableoff | on; default: offTurns the SSTP instance on or off.
Server IP addressip | host; default: noneIP address or hostname of a SSTP server.
User namestring; default: noneUsername used for authentication to the SSTP server.
Passwordstring; default: nonePassword used for authentication to the SSTP server.
CA cert.crt file; default: noneUpload a Certificate authority (CA) file.
Default routeoff | on; default: offWhen turned on, this connection will become the device default route. This means that all traffic directed to the Internet will go through the SSTP server and the server’s IP address will be seen as this device’s source IP to other hosts on the Internet.
NOTE: this can only be used when Failover is turned off.

Stunnel #

Stunnel is an open-source a proxy service that adds TLS encryption to clients and servers already existing on a VPN network. TLS encryption provided by Stunnel can be used as an additional layer of encryption for data sent by VPN. This procedure increases the security of the established connection and provides higher chances of passing a Deep packet inspection (DPI) check.

Stunnel globals #

The Stunnel Globals section is used to manage the Stunnel service as a whole. Refer to the figure and table below for information on the fields contained in the Stunnel Globals section.

Networking rutx vpn stunnel globals v1.png
FieldValueDescription
Enabledoff | on; default: offTurns the Stunnel service on or off. If this is unchecked, Stunnel instances will not start (even if they are enabled individually); therefore, it is necessary to check this field in order to make Stunnel active on the router.
Debug Levelinteger [0..7]; default: 5Debugging to log output level.0 (emergency) – a panic condition, i.e., system is no longer usable.1 (alert) – a condition that must be corrected immediately.2 (critical) – critical conditions, device errors.3 (error) – errors that are fatal to the operation, but not the service or application (can’t open a required file, missing data, etc.) Solving these types of errors will usually require user intervention.4 (warning) – anything that can potentially cause application oddities, but for which the system is automatically recovering from (e.g., retrying an operation, missing secondary data, etc.)5 (notice) – conditions that are not error conditions, but that may require special handling.6 (info) – general useful information (e.g., configuration changes, starts and stops of services, etc.)7 (debug) – contains basic information that is diagnostically helpful to most people (i.e., not just engineers).
Use alternative configoff | on; default: offTurns the possibility to upload an external Stunnel configuration file on or off.if you turn this on, other Stunnel configurations present in the router will become inactive.
Upload alternative configfile; default: noneUploads an Stunnel configuration file.

Stunnel instance #

To create a new Stunnel instance, go to the Services → VPN → Stunnel section, enter a custom name and click the ‘Add’ button. An Stunnel instance with the given name will appear in the “Stunnel Configuration” list.

To begin configuration, click the ‘Edit’ button located next to the instance. Refer to the figure and table below for information on the Stunnel instance’s configuration fields:

Networking rutx vpn stunnel instance v1.png
FieldValueDescription
Enableoff | on; default: offTurns the Stunnel instance on or off.
Operating ModeServer | Client; default: ServerSelects the Stunnel instance’s role.Server – listens for connecting Stunnel clients.Client – listens for connecting clients and connects to an Stunnel server.
Listen IPip; default: noneMakes the instance “listen” for incoming connections on the specified IP address. When left empty, the value of this field defaults to localhost (127.0.0.1).
Listen Portinteger [0..65535]; default: noneMakes the instance “listen” for incoming connections on the specified TCP port. Make sure you chose a port that is not being used by another service. You will also have to allow traffic on the specified port.
Connect IP’sip:port; default: noneIP:Port to listen for VPN connections. When left empty the value of this field is interpreted as localhost. Must contain at least one item. If multiple options are specified, remote address is chosen using a round-robin algorithm.
TLS CipherNone | Secure | Custom; default: NonePacket encryption algorithm cipher.
Custom: Allowed TLS Ciphersstring; default: noneA list of TLS ciphers accepted for this connection.
Application ProtocolConnect | SMTP | Not specified; default: Not specifiedThis option enables initial, protocol-specific negotiation of the TLS encryption. The protocol option should not be used with TLS encryption on a separate port.
Connect: Protocol AuthenticationBasic | NTLM; default: BasicAuthentication type for the protocol negotiations.
SMTP: Protocol AuthenticationPlain | Login; default: PlainAuthentication type for the protocol negotiations.
Certificate File.crt file; default: noneTLS client or server certificate file.
Private Key.key file; default: noneTLS client or server key file.

Additional notes:

  • Some configuration fields become available only when certain other parameters are selected. The names of the parameters are followed by a prefix that specifies the authentication type under which they become visible. Different color codes are used for different prefixes:
    • Blue for TLS Cipher: Custom
    • Dark red for Application Protocol: Connect
    • Chocolate for Application Protocol: SMTP

DMVPN #

Dynamic Multipoint VPN (DMVPN) is a method of building scalable IPsec VPNs. DMVPN is configured as a hub-and-spoke network, where tunnels between spokes are built dynamically; therefore, no change in configuration is required on the hub in order to connect new spokes.

DMVPN configuration #

To create a new DMVPN instance, go to the Services → VPN → DMVPN section, enter a custom name and click the ‘Add’ button. A DMVPN instance with the given name will appear in the “DMVPN Configuration” list.

To begin configuration, click the button that looks like a pencil located next to the instance. Refer to the figures and tables below for information on the DMVPN instance configuration:

Networking rutx vpn dmvpn dmvpn parameters configuration v1.png
FieldValueDescription
Enabledoff | on; default: offTurns the DMVPN instance on or off.
Working modeSpoke | Hub; default: SpokeSelects the role of this instanceHub – the central instance of DMVPN that connects other peers (spokes) into single network. There is no need to reconfigure the hub when connecting new spokes to it.Spoke – an instance that connects to the hub.
Hub addressip | host; default: noneIP address or hostname of a DMVPN hub.
Networking rutx vpn dmvpn gre parameters configuration v1.png
FieldValueDescription
Tunnel sourcenetwork interface; default: noneNetwork interface used to establish the GRE Tunnel.
Local GRE interface IP addressip; default: noneIP address of the local GRE Tunnel instance.
Spoke: Remote GRE interface IP addressip; default: noneIP address of the remote GRE Tunnel instance.
Hub: Local GRE interface netmasknetmask; default: noneSubnet mask of the local GRE Tunnel instance.
GRE MTUinteger; default: noneSets the maximum transmission unit (MTU) size. It is the largest size of a protocol data unit (PDU) that can be transmitted in a single network layer transaction.
GRE keysinteger [0..65535]; default: noneA key used to identify incoming and outgoing GRE packets.
Networking rutx vpn dmvpn ipsec parameters configuration v2.png
FieldValueDescription
Local identifierip | string; default: noneDefines how the user (IPsec instance) will be identified during authentication.IP – Internet Protocol address.FQDN – identity defined by fully qualified domain name. It is the complete domain name for a host (for example, something.somedomain.com). Only supported with IKEv2.
Remote identifierip | string; default: noneDefines how the right participant will be identified during authentication.IP – Internet Protocol address.FQDN – identity defined by fully qualified domain name. It is the complete domain name for a host (for example, something.somedomain.com). Only supported with IKEv2.
Pre-shared keystring; default: noneA shared password used for authentication between IPsec peers.
Encryption algorithm3DES | AES 128 | AES 192 | AES 256 | AES128 GCM8 | AES192 GCM8 | AES256 GCM8 | AES128 GCM12 | AES192 GCM12 | AES256 GCM12 | AES128 GCM16 | AES192 GCM16 | AES256 GCM16; default: AES 128Algorithm used for data encryption.
Authentication/Hash algorithmMD5 | SHA1 | SHA256 | SHA384 | SHA512; default: SHA1Algorithm used for exchanging authentication and hash information.
DH/PFS groupMODP768 | MODP1024 | MODP1536 | MODP2048 | MODP3072 | MODP4096 | ECP192 | ECP224 | ECP256 | ECP384 | ECP521; default: MODP1536Diffie-Hellman (DH) group used in the key exchange process. Higher group numbers provide more security, but take longer and use more resources to compute the key. Must match with another incoming connection to establish IPSec.
Force crypto proposaloff | on; default: offOnly chosen proposals will be used when turned on.
IKE Lifetimestring; default: noneHow long the keying channel of a connection (ISAKMP or IKE SA) should last before being renegotiated. The time is specified in seconds. The s, m, h and d suffixes explicitly define the units for seconds, minutes, hours and days, respectively.
Networking rutx vpn dmvpn nhrp parameters configuration v2.png
FieldValueDescription
NHRP network IDinteger; default: 1An identifier used to define the NHRP domain. This is a local parameter and its value does not need to match the values specified on other domains. However, the NHRP ID is added to packets which arrive on the GRE interface; therefore, it may be helpful to use the same ID for troubleshooting purposes.
NHRP authentication keystring; default: noneA key used in NHRP authentication.
NHRP hold timeinteger; default: 7200Specifies the holding time for NHRP Registration Requests and Resolution Replies sent from this interface or shortcut-target. The hold time is specified in seconds and defaults to two hours.

L2TP #

In computer networking, Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol (L2TP) is a tunneling protocol used to support virtual private networks (VPNs). It is more secure than PPTP but, because it encapsulates the transferred data twice, but it is slower and uses more CPU power.

L2TP client #

An L2TP client is an entity that initiates a connection to an L2TP server. To create a new client instance, go to the Services → VPN → L2TP section, select Role: Client, enter a custom name and click the ‘Add’ button. An L2TP client instance with the given name will appear in the “L2TP Configuration” list.

To begin configuration, click the button that looks like a pencil next to the client instance. Refer to the figure and table below for information on the L2TP client’s configuration fields:

Networking rutx vpn l2tp client configuration v2.png
FieldValueDescription
Enableoff | on; default: offTurns the L2TP instance on or off.
Serverip | host; default: noneIP address or hostname of an L2TP server.
Usernamestring; default: noneUsername used for authentication to the L2TP server.
Passwordstring; default: nonePassword used for authentication to the L2TP server.
Default routeoff | on; default: offWhen turned on, this connection will become device default route. This means that all traffic directed to the Internet will go through the L2TP server and the server’s IP address will be seen as this device’s source IP to other hosts on the Internet.
NOTE: this can only be used when Failover is turned off.

L2TP server #

An L2TP server is an entity that waits for incoming connections from L2TP clients. To create a new server instance, go to the Services → VPN → L2TP section, select Role: Server, enter a custom name and click the ‘Add’ button. An L2TP server instance with the given name will appear in the “L2TP Configuration” list. Only one L2TP server instance is allowed to be added.

A server needs to have a public IP address in order to be available from the public network (the Internet).

To begin configuration, click the button that looks like a pencil next to the server instance. Refer to the figure and table below for information on the L2TP server’s configuration fields:

Networking rutx vpn l2tp server configuration v2.png
FieldValueDescription
Enableoff | on; default: offTurns the L2TP instance on or off.
Local IPip; default: 192.168.0.1IP address of this L2TP network interface.
Remote IP range beginip; default: 192.168.0.20L2TP IP address leases will begin from the address specified in this field.
Remote IP range endip; default: 192.168.0.30L2TP IP address leases will end with the address specified in this field.
User namestring; default: userUsername used for authentication to this L2TP server.
Passwordstring; default: passPassword used for authentication to this L2TP server.
L2TP Client’s IPip; default: noneAssigns an IP address to the client that uses the adjacent authentication info. This field is optional and if left empty the client will simply receive an IP address from the IP pool defined above.

WireGuard #

WireGuard is simple, fast, lean, and modern VPN that utilizes secure and trusted cryptography. It intends to be more performant than OpenVPN. WireGuard is designed as general purpose VPN, fit for many different circumstances and while it is currently under heavy development, it already might be regarded as the most secure, easiest to use, and simplest VPN solution.

Note: WireGuard is additional software that can be installed from the Services → Package Manager page.

WireGuard works by adding an interface which acts as a tunnel. To create one enter its name and click the Add button. To configure it click the Edit  button.

Networking rutx vpn wireguard v1.png

General Instance Settings #

This section contains General settings of created WireGuard Instance. Here you can find its Public and Private keys and generate them, specify Port and IP addresses for communication.

Networking rutx vpn wireguard instance general v1.png
FieldValueDescription
Enableoff | on; default: offTurns WireGuard Instance on or off.
Private Keystring; default: nonePrivate Key used in authentication.
Public Keystring; default: Public Key used in authentication.
Generate-(interactive button)Click to generate Public Key and Private Key.
Listen Portinteger [0..65535]; default: noneSpecify port to listen for incomming connections. It will be set to a random integer if left empty.
IP Addressesip; default: noneA single IP address or a list of them for this instance associated with public keys.

Advanced Settings #

Advanced Settings section contains Metric and MTU configuration for this WireGuard interface. 

FieldValueDescription
Metricpositive integer; default: noneSpecify metric for this tunnel interface. Lower number means higher priority.
MTUinteger [1280..1420]; default: noneMaximum Transmission Unit for this tunnel interface.

Peers #

The Peers section is used to create and configure all the peers for this interface. To create one enter its name and click the Add button. To configure it click the Edit  button. 

General Peer Settings #

In the General section of Peer instance you can configure basic information about the endpoint to allow communications. 

FieldValueDescription
Public Keystring; default: noneEndpoint’s Public Key.
Allowed IPsip; default: noneA single IP address or a list of them which are allowed to communicate with this peer.

Advanced Peer Settings #

In the Advanced section of Peer instance you are able to configure additional settings such as its Description, Endpoint Host and Port, Preshared Key and other. See more information below. 

FieldValueDescription
Descriptionstring; default: noneDescription of this peer.
Pre-Shared Keystring; default: noneBase64-encoded preshared key. Adds in an additional layer of symmetric-key cryptography for post-quantum resistance.
Route Allowed IPsoff | on; default: offEnable to create routes for Allowed IPs for this peer.
Endpoint Hostip | url; default: noneIP or URL of Remote Endpoint.
Endpoint Portinteger [0..65535]; default: noneSpecify port to connect to Remote Endpoint. It will be set to 51820 if left empty.
Persistent Keep Aliveinteger [0..65535]; default: noneSpecify time amount in seconds between Keep Alive messages. By default this option is 0 which means it is disabled. Recommended value for a device behind NAT is 25.

Submit a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *